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Биологический факультет БГУ - Кафедра ботаники.    


Dr. of Sci. in Mycology, Physiology and Biochemistry of Plants, Professor, Department of Botany, Biological Faculty, Belarusian State University, Minsk

Curriculum vitae: Karpuk V.V. was born 25.04.1954 in village Kustyn of Brest region. After ending in 1971 secondary school he worked in the Brest distance of protective afforestations and then was trained on internal departament of biological faculty of the Byelorussian state university (BSU). Karpuk V.V. is graduate chair botany the BSU at 1977th. Till 2001 he was the scientific employer laboratory physiology of a diseased plant the V.F. Kuprevich Institute of experimental botany of the Byelorussian Academy of Science. In 1985 he has successfully finished postgraduate study in the Main botanical garden of Academy of sciences of the USSR, Moscow, under the guidance of academician L.N. Andreev and professor J.M. Plotnikova. In 1986 Karpuk V.V. has protected the master's thesis "Cytophysiological features of mutual relations of a plant-host and pathogen at defeat of a rye and wheat a stem rust" on scientific specialities "Botany" and "Physiology of Plants". In 2000 Karpuk V.V. has protected the thesis for a doctor's degree on a subject "Structural organization of cereals pathogenesis induced by a fungal infection" on scientific specialities "Physiology and Biochemistry of Plants" and "Mycology" (professor Z.J. Serova was his scientific adviser). From 2001 to 2006 he was the senior lecturer of chair pharmacy the BSU. From 2007 Karpuk V.V. is professor of chair botany biological faculty of BSU.


Read courses, practical works:

Pharmacognosia − general course for students 2 courses of an educational specialities "Biotechnology" 1-31 01 01-03 and 1-31 01 01-01 − scientific-productional activity on biological faculty
Pharmacognosia − general course for students 2 courses of an educational speciality 1-31 05 01-03 "Chemistry (pharmaceutical activity) on chemical faculty
Plant-growing − general course for students 1 and 2 courses of internal and external branch (together with S.G. Sidorova)
Phytoimmunity (structural-physiological and molecular basis) − for magistrants (together with V.D. Poliksenova)

Laboratory and a practical training:

"Algology and Mycology " − for students of 1 course of an educational speciality "Biotechnology"
"Summer’s educational practice on botany, algology and mycology

Areas of scientific interests:

1. Phytopathogenic fungi: structural and functional adaptations to parasitism or symbiosis with plants;

2. Cytophysiological reorganizations of plants at interaction with biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogenic and symbiotic fungi as a scientific basis for working out of ways of protection of plants from diseases

3. Immunity as a unique biological phenomenon and its structural and functional features at plants

4. Biologically active substances of plants, algae and mushrooms and possibility of their therapeutic application

Karpuk V.V. is the author of 85 scientific and 20 study-methodical publications

Following papers and jobs are the basic:

1. A.C. Шуканаý, Л.В. Кахновiч, В.В. Карпук, М.А. Лемяза. Уплыý грыба Peronospora schleidenii Unger. на колькасць пiгментаý i фотахiмiчную актыýнасць хларапластаý цыбулi рэпчатай. //Весцi Акадэмii навук БССР. Сер. бiялагiчных навук. 1978. № 3. С. 53-57. [Influence of a fungus Peronospora schleidenii Unger. on quantity of pigments and photochemical activity of chloroplasts of onion top // Proceedings of the Аcademy of Sciences of the BSSR. Ser. Biologic Sciences. 1978. № 3. P. 53-57]. Summary : The pigment pool and photochemical activity of common onion (А. cepa) chloroplasts-influenced by Peronospora schleidenii Unger infection are studied. The pigment (chlorophyll a, b, a + b, carotenoids) amount and the photochemical activity of chloroplasts are shown to decrease significantly in peduncles and leaves of the fungi-infected plants that depends both on the infection degree and the plant age.

2. А.С. Шуканов, А.И. Стефанович, В.В. Карпук. Особенности биологии некоторых видов пероноспоровых грибов Белоруссии (Белорусский государственный университет им. В.И. Ленина, Минск) // Материалы VI конференции по споровым растениям Средней Азии и Казахстана, сентябрь, 1978 г., Институт ботаники АН Таджикской ССР, Душанбе. – Душанбе, 1978, с. 274-275. [А.S. Shukanov,А.I. Stefanovich, V.V. Кarpuk. A Features of biology of some species peronospoeic fungi of Belarus (the Belarus State University of V.I. Lenin, Minsk) // Materials of the VI Conference on sporous plants of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, Sept., 1978, Institute of Botany Acad. Sci. Tadz.SSR, Dushanbe.– Dushanbe, 1978. P. 274-275.]. Summary : Influence of a moisture, temperatures, light and other factors of environment on germination and phytoinfectious ability conidia a number peronosporic fungi - Peronospora tabacina Adam., P. scnachtii Fuck., P. schleideni Unger., P. effusa Debary, P. brassicae Gäum. – was studied.

3. В.В. Карпук Рост гриба Puccinia dispersa Erikss. et Henn. на искусственной питательной среде. // Богатства флоры – народному хозяйству. Материалы конференции "Проблемы изучения и использования в народном хозяйстве растений природной флоры", Москва, 1979. – М.: ГБС АН СССР, 1979, С. 373-374. [Karpuk V.V. Growth of fungus Puccinia dispersa Erikss. et Henn. on an artificial nutrient medium // Riches of flora – to a national economy. Materials of conference "Problems of studying and use in a national economy of plants of natural flora", Moscow, 1979. – M.: The MBG of Acad. Sci. of the USSR, 1979. P. 373-374. Summary : Development of some colonies P. dispersa came to end with formation of stroma, reminding the stroma P. graminis f.sр. trltici was cultivated before.

4. В.В. Карпук, Ю.М. Плотникова. Локализация липидов и липолитических ферментов в инфекционных структурах Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. // Типы устойчивости сортов сельскохозяйственных растениий к болезням. Тезисы докладов на Всесоюзном совещании «Теория и практика использования иммунитета сельскохозяйственных культур к вирусным болезням» (Дотнува Литовской ССР, 12–14 июня 1984 г.). – Москва: ВАСХНИЛ, 1984. С. 123. [Karpuk V.V., Plotnikova J.M. Localisation of lipids and lipolytic enzymes in infectious structures Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici // Resistance types of sorts agricultural plants to illnesses. Abstracts of the reports at All-Union meeting «the Theory and practice of use of immunity of agricultural crops to virus illnesses» (Dotnuva, the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Rep., June, 12-14th, 1984). – M.: AUAAS, 1984. P. 123. Summary : Results of executed histochemical researches have shown presence of lipids at all steps of differentiation of infection structures, i.e. at development of a fungus up to an establishment of contacts it to a host plant, and gradual decrease in the maintenance of fraction of butters and activity lipase to the ending of differentiation.

5. Ю.М. Плотникова, В.В. Карпук. Гистохимическое исследование липидного обмена возбудителя стеблевой ржавчины. Актуальные задачи физиологии и биохимии растений в ботанических садах СССР. Тезисы докладов Всесоюзного совещания, 14–16 окт. 1984 г., Звенигород. / Редакционная коллегия: Л.Н. Андреев (отв. ред.), и др. – Пущино, 1984, с. 141–142. [J.M. Plotnikova, V.V. Karpuk. Histochemical research lipid exchange of the causal agent cereals stem rust. Actual problems of physiology and biochemistry of plants in botanical gardens of the USSR. Theses of reports All-Union symposium, 14–16 Oct., 1984, Zvenigorod. / Editorial board: L.N. Andreev (chief ed.), etc. – Pushchino, 1984, P. 141–142.]. Summary : Comparison of localisations lipids in various cell-bodies of a wheat stem rust exciter testifies that the fungus intensively uses energy of lipids in ectophytic stage of development. The carbohydrate exchange, apparently, prevails in endophytic stages development of fungus.

6. В.В. Карпук, Ю.М. Плотникова. Электронномикроскопическое исследование липидов и липазы гриба Puccinia graminis. // Грибы и лишайники в экосисистеме: Х научный симпозиум микологов и лихенологов Прибалтийских республик и Белоруссии, г. Мадона, 16-18 сентября, 1985 года. Тезисы докладов. Ч. 1. / Отв. ред. Э.К. Вимба. – Рига: ЛГУ им. П. Стучки. С. 70-72. [ V.V. Karpuk, J.M. Plotnikova. Electron microscopy of lipid and lipase of Puccinia graminis. // Fungi and lichens in ecosystem.The 10th scientific symposium of the Baltic republics and Byelorussia on Mycology and lychenology, Madona, September 16-18, 1985. Аbstracts of scientific symposium. Part I. /Edit. in chief – E.C. Vimba. – Riga: P. Stuchka Latvian State University, 1985. P. 70-72. Summary : Lipid globules and sites of liраsе activity localiation in all formed organs of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and f. sp. secalis vere studied by cytochemical methods under light and electron microscope. The amount of lipid globules progressively decreased during uredospore germination, and increased during sрoге formation. Lipid globules were sparse in haustoria and intercellular hyphae. Lipase activity was found on the memгanes of structures being digested inside the sequestration vacuoles.

7. Карпук В.В. , Плотникова Ю.М., Андреев Л.Н. Локализация липидов и липаз в клетках гриба Puccinia graminis Pers. в эктофитной стадии //Микология и фитопатология. 1986. Т. 20, вып. 2. С. 94-98. [Karpuk V.V., Plotnikova J.M., Andreev L.N. Localisation of lipids and lipases in cells of fungus Puccinia graminis Pers. in ectophytic stage of development // Mycology and Phytopathology. 1986. Vol. 20, Issue. 2. P. 94-98.]. Summary : A localization of lipids and lipolytic enzymes in uredospores, germ tubes, appressoria, substomatal swellings and infectious hyphae is revealed in a result of led histo- and cytochemical researches on various bodies of mycelium a fungus-activator of a stem rust in ectophytic stages of its development. A reduction of maintenance of lipids in the course of lengthening germ tubes and differentiations of the infection structures, accompanied by a decrease of lipase activity is shown. At a stage of infectious hyphae development the lipase activity appears below a sensitivity level of the method of revealing (visualization). Demonstrations of allocation of exogenic lipase on epidermal surface of wheat and rye leaf around of a tip germ tubes of stem rust fungus are received in result of light-microscopic and scanning microscopic tests. High activity of acid phosphatase is found out in all bodies of a mycelium of stem rust fungus formed in ectophytic stage of development. Results of done histochemical researches promote understanding of mutual relations of a plant-host and pathogen at development of fungus on a plant surface and at the course of introduction in its tissues up to an establishment of more close contacts arising at a time of introduction of haustorium in mesophyll cell of leaf.

8. В.В. Карпук. Электронно-гистохимическое исследование пограничной зоны между клетками мезофилла ржи и возбудителя стеблевой ржавчины: реакция на кислую фосфатазу // Применение электронной микроскопии в науке и технике: Материалы II научно-технической конференции, Минск, 27-28 октября 1987 г. Минск, 1987. С. 117-119. [Karpuk V.V. Eleсtron-histohemical research of a border zone between mesophyll cells a rye and the causal agent of a stem rust: reaction on acid phosphatase. Application of electronic microscopy in science and technitian: Materials of the II scientific and technical conference, Minsk, on October, 27-28th, 1987. Minsk, 1987. P. 117-119.]. Summary : Disposition of mitochondria plants and pathogen near to a interface zone in the cells of a rye infected with a stem rust fungus and high activity of acid phosphatase indicate on an energetic maintenance of processes passing in this zone, in particular, active transport of substances in a direction to haustorium.

9. В.В. Карпук. Ультраструктура гриба Puccinia dispersa, паразитирующего в тканях ржи // Применение электронной микроскопии в науке и технике: Материалы II научно-технической конференции, Минск, 27-28 октября 1987 г. Минск, 1987. С. 135-1136. [Karpuk V.V. Ultrastructure of the fungus Puccinia dispersa, parasitizing in tissues of a rye. Application of electronic microscopy in science and technitian: Materials of the II scientific and technical conference, Minsk, on October, 27-28th, 1987. Minsk, 1987. P. 135-136.]. Summary : Ultrastructural distinctions between intercellular hyphae and intracellular haustoria reflect, apparently, features of these cells of fungus in connection with their functional specialization.

10. В.В. Карпук. Электронномикроскопическое исследование экстрагаусториального матрикса возбудителя бурой листовой ржавчины ржи // Ультраструктура растений: VI Всесоюзный симпозиум, Чернигов, 1988. /Тезисы докладов/. – Киев, 1988, с. 206. [V.V. Karpuk. Electrone microcopic research of extrahaustorial matrix exciter of a brown leaf rust of a rye. Ultrastructure of plants: VI All-Union symposium, Chernigov, 1988. /Abstracts of reports/. – Kiev, 1988, p. 206. ]. Summary : Results of researches indicate that chemical content of EHMa in which formation as it is supposed, participate granular and agranular endoplasmatic reticulum, dictyosomes Golgi, ribosomes, vacuoles, changes at development haustorium in a cell of the host.

11. В.В. Карпук, Ю.М. Плотникова. Локализация активности липазы в межклеточном мицелии и гаусториях возбудителя стеблевой ржавчны пшеницы и ржи // Ультраструктура растений: VI Всесоюзный симпозиум, Чернигов, 1988. /Тезисы докладов/. – Киев, 1988, с. 207. [V.V. Karpuk, J.M. Plotnikova. Localization of lipase activity in intercellular mycelium and haustoria of causal agent of a stem rust of wheat and rye. //Ultrastructure of plants: VI All-Union symposium, Chernigov, 1988. /Abstracts of reports/. – Kiev, 1988, p. 206. ]. Summary : The obtained data confirm the assumption on important role lipids as reserve substances, activation of lipid metabolism at ectophyte uredospores germination and endophyte formation of its, and on change metabolism from lipids to carbohydrate at passage of a rust fungus to parasitic stage of development.

12. В.В. Карпук, Ю.М. Плотникова, Л.Н. Андреев. Исследование локализации кислой фосфатазы в клетках возбудителя стеблевой ржавчины и ржи при их взаимодействии // Физиолого-биохимические основы к грибным болезням растений. (Сборник тезисов). Уфа, 1988, c. 44. [Research of acid phosphatase localisation in cells of the causal agent of a stem rust and a rye at their interaction. Physiologic and biochemical bases of plant immunity to fungal diseases. (The collection of abstracts.). – Ufa, 1988, p. 44.]. Summary : Found out arrangement mitochondria of pathogenic fungus in the cells of a rye defeated with a stem rust both plants about a border zone and revealed in haustoria activity acid phosphatase specify a concentration in intensity of reactions of hydrolysis and synthesis phosphoorganic connections, on energetic maintenance of processes proceeding in this zone, in particular, active haustorial absorption of substances from plant protoplasm.

13. Ю.М. Плотникова, В.В. Карпук. Электронномикроскопическое исследование инфекционных структур Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis, f. sp. tritici. // Электронная микроскопия и современная технология: IV Республиканская конференция по электронной микроскопии, Кишинев, 1990. Сборник тезисов. – Кишинев, 1990, с. 95-96. [J.M. Plotnikova, V.V. Karpuk. Electrone microscopic investigation of infection structures of Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis and f. sp. tritici // Electrone microscopy and modern technology: the IV Republic conference on electron microscopy, Kishineu, 1990. The collection of abstracts. – Kishineu, 1990, p. 95-96.]. Summary : Introduction of causal agents of a stem rust of a rye and wheat fungi Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis and f. sp. tritici it is accompanied by formation of infectious structures. For electrone microscopic researches induced differentiation of infectious structures in vitro by means a thermal heat shock (30 °C within 3 hours). It is revealed, that the wall of germ tubes of exciters of a stem rust of a rye and wheat is formed as continuation of an inside layer of a uredospore cover. At germination cytoplasm with numerous electrone transparent lipid globules, from spores moves at first in a germ tube, then in an apptrssorium. At appressorium formation occurs a mitotic division of each of two nuclei. Lipidic globules in appressoria get an unregular form, and dark sites there are in them. Approximately in 12 hours after the germination beginning it is formed a substomatal swelling in which there is the second round of mitotic division and 8 nuclei are formed, the number of ribosomes increases, osmiophylity of lipide globules raises these globules are often came in contact with small vesicles, apparently, glyoxysomes or lysosomes. Distinctions of ultrastructural organization germ tubes, appressoria, substomstal swellings of two specialized forms, i.e. rye and wheaten, it is not revealed

14. Карпук В.В. Ультраструктура гриба Pyrenophora teres in vivo и in vitro. Электронномикроскопическое исследование инфекционных структур Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis, f. sp. tritici. // Электронная микроскопия и современная технология: IV Республиканская конференция по электронной микроскопии, Кишинев, 1990. Сборник тезисов. – Кишинев, 1990, с. 95-96. [V.V. Karpuk. Ultrastructure of fungus Pyrenophora teres in vivo and in vitro // Electrone microscopy and modern technology: the IV Republic conference on electron microscopy, Kishineu, 1990. The collection of abstracts. – Kishineu, 1990, p. 95-96.]. Summary : Mushroom Р teres in natural conditions parasitizes on barley, calling disease of leaves – net spot blotch. In intercellular space of mesophyll the defeated leaves separate hyphae of pathogenic fungus are found out. The hyphae are covered with 2-layered cell wall, its external layer less dense, than internal. The plasmatic membrane adjoins a wall and has an equal surface. Cytoplasm contains a considerable quantity of ribosomes, mitochondria, endoplasmatic reticulum, but the last is developed poorly. In making old hyphae vacuoles, cytosegrosomes, small inclusions are revealed. Nearby a hyphae in the isolated intercellular cavities of mesophyll lumps of electrone opaque substances are found out. In attachment places to walls of plant cells hyphae form adjournment of amorphous substance of average density. Mycellial hyphae, grown up on liquid or on solidifyted with a 2% agar Chapek-media had the same internal structure, but contained more polysomes, microbodies with cristallic inclusions, plasmalemmasomes, and in vacuolated cells - large dark inclusions. Lumps of electrone opaque substances settled down, as a rule, in liquid media on considerable space nearby a hyphae. This substance settled down a layer directly about a hyphal wall in agare hard media. Small granules electrone opaque substances are found out in mushroom cytoplasm. It is possible to assume, that the given substance excreted a mushroom in an environment and can represent toxins, enzymes or melanins.

15. В.В. Карпук, М.Н. Масный. Ультраструктура клеток восприимчивого и устойчивого ячменя при поражении сетчатой листовой пятнистостью. // Применение электронной микроскопии в науке и технике. Тезисы докладов Третьей республиканской научно-технической конференции, Минск, 29-30 октября 1991 г. – Минск, 1991, с. 112. [V.V. Karpuk, M.N. Masnyj. Ultrastructure of cells susceptible and resistant sorts of barley at infection with leaf net spot blotch // Application of electronic microscopy in science and technitian: Abstracts of the Third Republic scientific and technical conference, Minsk, on October, 29-31th, 1991. – Minsk, 1991. P. 112.]. Summary : Research sorts of barley Nadj and Kmen, being according to susceptible and resistant against disease leaf net spot blotch is carried out. In both sorts changes of thin structure of cells are revealed. At a susceptible sort the cellular wall gets amorphous structure, has ruptures; the thickness and density plasmalemma increase, it bilipidic structure becomes indistinct, in its invaginations adjournment of electron dense substance are found out. A nuclear membrane, as well as plasmatic, for a long time intact though sometime there can be damages. Integrity of an external chloroplast membrane is quickly broken and there is disintegration of plastid, in mitochondria crists are extended, then mitochondria degenerate. Endoplasmatic reticulum tubes have the raised density of its membranes and meet even at last stages of pathological process in a cell, dictyosomes Golgi in the defeated cells are found out seldom. Adjournment of electron-dense substance on tonoplast and ruptures are observed. In cells of a resistant sort the wall damage is a smaller, the structure of a plasmatic membrane is more distinct, chloroplasts have developed peripheral reticulum, adjournments on tonoplast there are less, and except big central vacuole often there are small ones. Data show, that tissues of barley of two differing on resistance to leaf net spot blotch sorts react to infection by similar image, but differ in the speed and amplitude of changes of cellular walls, nuclei, organelles, a plasmatic membrane, vacuole. Changes of structure and ultrastructure of cells in the resistant sort, induced with pathogenic fungus and leading to necrotic autolysis of cytoplasm, are expressed more poorly and do not create for development of the exciter of the favorable environment as it takes place at defeat of a susceptible sort.

16. В.В. Карпук. "Окаймленные" пузырьки в пораженных бурой ржавчиной тканях ржи. // Применение электронной микроскопии в науке и технике. Тезисы докладов Третьей республиканской научно-технической конференции, Минск, 29-30 октября 1991 г. – Минск, 1991, с. 113. [V.V. Karpuk. “Coated” vesicles in the tissues of rye defeated with the brown leaf rust // Application of electronic microscopy in science and technitian: Abstracts of the Third Republic scientific and technical conference, Minsk, on October, 29-31th, 1991. Minsk, 1991. P. 113.]. Summary : Мany researchers meet presence of the “coated” (or "covered") and "partially coated" vesicles at plant cell protoplasm in their investigations under transmission electron microscope, but functions of these structures are studied badly yet. It is recently revealed, that plant cells are capable absorb macro-molecules by means a receptor-mediated endocytosis, that essentially pulls together the structure-functional organizations of plant and animal cells and also allows to assume a certain role of the "coated" vesicles in functioning of system of plant immunity. Therefore a problem of the present research was revealing of presence of these ultrastructural images in mesophyll tissue cells of rye infected with the exciter brown leaf rust and their possible role in processes recognition of pathogen by the host. The "coated" vesicles in rye cytoplasm nearby rust fungus haustoria met seldom and had a structure described in the literature. On the average diameter of vesicles made about 50 nanometers. The same vials came to light in mesophyll cells at a place its attachment to tips and subapical parts of intercellular hyphae. "Coated" vesicles races relied in cytoplasm without visible contacts with tubes of endoplasmatic reticulum or dictyosomes Golgi. The origin of the "coated" vesicles remains not clear: on a surface of extrahaustorial membranes of the "coated" pits it is not revealed and almost there were no invaginations of extrahaustorial membranes in cytoplasm at young haustoria as signs on presence of endocytosis. Despite presence of numerous invaginations of plasmalemma in cytoplasm in a place of contact of a cells with the hyphae, the "coated" pits on a membrane also it is not revealed. So far as it was not revealed the "coated" pits on a plasmatic membrane – the first steps on a way occurrence of the "coated" vesicles, the question of their formation demands the further studying.

17. В.В. Карпук. Индуцирование стеблевой ржавчиной ржи образования электронно-плотного вещества в ядрах пшеницы и его перемещение в гаустории // Применение электронной микроскопии в науке и технике. Тезисы докладов Третьей республиканской научно-технической конференции, Минск, 29-30 октября 1991 г.– Минск, 1991, с. 114. [V.V. Karpuk. // Application of electronic microscopy in science and technitian: Abstracts of the Third Republic scientific and technical conference, Minsk, on October, 29-31th, 1991. Minsk, 1991. P. 114.]. Summary : Studying of ultrastructural features of interaction of specialised forms of pathogenic fungus with non-host plants has both theoretical, and practical value as opens the general mechanisms of protective reactions which can be used at creation of new sorts of hybrid cultures, such as triticale. Plants of wheat Triticum diccocum (Khapli) infected with uredospores of 52 races of the exciter of a stem rust of a rye and showing high-resistant type of reaction (;I-) were object of the present research. It is revealed, that pathogen in tissues of germlings of plants forms typical for rust fungi intercellular hyphae and haustoria. The feature of the given combination the host-patogen observed under transmission electron microscope, was appearance of granules of electron-dense substance in cells of plants after introduction fungal haustoria which did not mark in not infected tissues. Originally granules were found out in euchromatine zone of a nuclei and in a nuclei, then among ribosomes in cytoplasm, on endoplasmatic reticulum and to a lesser degree in mitochondria, chloroplasts, in multyvesicular bodies and small vacuoles, but not on tonoplast of central vacuole, dictyosomes Golgi. Granules got through extrahaustorial membrane in haustorium, but in structure extrahaustorial matrix came to light seldom; in haustoria they were found out on plasmalemma and in the form of small granules on all cytoplasm. Granules in cytoplasm of intercellular hyphae was not. Large granules were found out on a plasmatic membrane of the defeated plant cells, in free space, were besieged on walls a hyphae. Described steps of revealing of granules show on their moving from a nuclei of the host to haustoria of pathogen.

18. Карпук В.В. , Плотникова Ю.М., Андреев Л.Н. Цитологическое исследование эктофитной стадии развития Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis и P. graminis f. sp. tritici. //Облигатный паразитизм: цитофизиологические аспекты.– М.: Наука, 1991, с. 83-92. [Karpuk V.V., Plotnikova J.M., Andreev L.N. Cytologic research of ectophytic stages of development Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis and P. graminis f. sp. tritici // Obligate parasitism: cytophysiological aspects. – М: the Science, 1991. P. 83-92.]. Summary : By the spent experiences we have stated as considerable morphological and physiological similarity P. graminis f. sp. secalis and P. graminis f. sp. tritici, that was shown in uniformity of development uredospores on a surface of leaves and in differentiation of infectious structures under the influence of a thermal heat shock, and their some distinctions: a lower percent level the formation appressoria and substomatal swellings and a higher percent level of deviations from normal differentiation (such as appressorial "outhgrowing") of the causal agent of a stem rust of a rye in comparison with the causal agent of a stem rust of wheat under the influence of a thermal heat shock in vitro. Similar state and division of nuclei these fungi in the course of normal and abnormal differentiation of infectious structures in vitro and in vivo is revealed. The obtained data testify, on the one hand, to similarity of hereditary programs of development in rye and wheaten specialized forms of the causal agent of a stem rust up to formation infectious hyphae, and on the other hand, about certain similarity of a structure of leaves and their surfaces at the genus Rye and Wheat as high specialized rust fungi can be good indicators at research of closely related plants [Vavilov, 1986]. Unequal character of response to a thermal heat shock of these specialized forms of a stem rust specifies in some differences in the course of differentiation of infectious structures and introduction of an infection at investigated phytopahogens. It is additional argument on favour of the ectophytic stages importance in rust development in which there is a multiple increase in hereditary material, the functional status of cells changes and specific substances which define the further stages of development rust pathogen and its interactions with a plant are formed. Lability of the initial stages morphogenesis at fungi – activators of a stem rust of wheat and a rye testifies to possibility of working out of protective actions against a stem rust of wheat and a rye, connected with application the regulation type substances. Working out of similar actions would allow to direct ectophytic development of causal agents of stem rust on an abnormal way and thus to minimize of frequency infection of rye and wheat leaves.

19. Сярова З.Я., Карпук В.В. Структурна-функцыянальныя асаблiвасцi узаемадзеяння арганизмаў у фiтапатасiстэме. //Весцi Акадэмii навук БССР. Сер. Бiялагiчн. навук. 1991. № 4. С. 70-75. [Serova Z.J., Karpuk V.V. Structurally-functional features interactions of organisms in phytopathosystem // Proceedings of the Аcademy of Sciences of the BSSR. Ser. Biologic. Sciences. 1991. № 4. P. 70-75.]. Summary : It is found that the integration of heterogenous organisms into a physiological system is based on the changes in transcription and translation intensities and on the structural contents of cells. Immediately after intruding of the brown leaf rust pathogen into the rye leaf tissues, the nuclei shape and sizes changes, hetero- and euchromatine zone proportions alter, synthesis of proteins with a slight degree of immune affinity with the pathogen properties and a higher percentage of low mobile forms appears intensified. After the infection process completes, the structural and functional activities decrease, and destructive processes start developing.

20. Карпук В.В. Методологические основы исследования иммунитета у растений // Проблемы ботаники. Материалы VI делегатского съезда Белорусского республиканского ботанического общества. Часть 2. / Ред. коллегия: В.И. Парфенов (гл. ред.), и др. – Минск, 1993. С. 465-467. [Karpuk V.V. Methodological bases of research immunity in plants.// Problems of Botany. Materials of the VI delegate congress of the Belarus republican botanical society. Part 2. / Editor. board: V.I. Parfenov – the chairman, etc. – Minsk, 1993. P. 465-467.]. Summary : Immunity is a way of protection of an organism from live bodies and substances bearing on signs of genetic allogeneity. The resulted formulation is in full conformity with "Bernett’ axiom", postulating, that the central biological mechanism of immunity serves recognizing "self" and "non-self". Now concept "immunity", as a rule, attributed to the higher animals and men, possessing the specialized immune system consisting of special bodies, immunocompetent cells and humoral factors, but not to plants at which such system is absent and the ability to discern "self" and "non-self" with reliability it is not shown neither at level of an individual, nor at kind (species) level. Therefore scientists prefer to use instead of this term of a word "the resistance of plants to infectious diseases", and for opposite reaction – "the susceptibility". In such system of terminological coordinates distinguish also compatibility degrees: symbiosis, parasitism, immunity where as immunity understand an extreme degree of the resistance, full immunity of plants to exciters of infectious diseases. However, it appears, the term "phyto-immunity" merit revival in the first – wide sense of a word that will not underestimate objectively existing distinctions between animals and plants, but will underline active dynamic character of mutual relations between a host plant and pathogen, and also will direct scientific thought into a research channel of evolution developed features of displaying uniform biological the law of protection of individuality which carry out immunologic phenomena at representatives of different regular groups of live organisms. The theoretical precondition for such sight are based on data of modern sciences of representation about relationship of all live, including plants, animal, fungi, and about an origin of complex organized metaphytes from monocelled ones. As in the base of building all live organisms lays the cell, the studying of ultrastructural and molecular mechanisms of interaction of cells is a key to knowledge of the general bases of biological compatibility and further to studying of immunity at animals and at plants, to revealing of their specific mechanisms. It is assume, that the functional structures responsible for immunity at animals and plants, differently evolved on the basis of the identical or very similar cellular mechanisms inherent in their elementary ancestor forms – structure of a cellular surface and processes of an exchange of protoplasm with environment. Therefore it seems logical, that at studying of phyto-immunity the attention of scientists should be concentrated first of all on structurally functional research of an interface between interacting organisms. Cognizance mechanisms between cells of the host and a parasite, activation of protective processes of a plant and a parasitic feeding of the exciter, apparently, are interconnected. In such interrelation has specified I.I. Mechnikov at studying phagocytosis. Therefore research of structurally functional bases of a feeding of phytopathogenic organisms should be other question at phyto-immunity studying. It is though that studying cellular bases of biological compatibility represents very important part, but only a part of the investigated phenomenon as any cell at animals and plants is special structural-functional differentiated and is integrated into complex system, to a status from many other things specialized cells and tissues between that the balanced interaction which is broken by introduction of alien structures is carried out. Therefore a following necessary direction of researches is studying of the defeated cells in interrelation with other cells and tissues in development of a plant and also depending on environment conditions. There are indications that the heart of the phenomena of a susceptibility and resistance of plants to phytopathogens are the uniform mechanisms possessing considerable similarity in structurally functional displays and differing mostly quantitatively: on speed and intensity of course of the induced responses, efficiency of education of those or other products etc., which allows to hope, that researches of structurally functional and molecular mechanisms of interaction of plants and their pathogens will promote not only to deeper knowledge of fundamental bases of biological compatibility, but also will simultaneously have also practical value that will lead to application of the received knowledge for protection of agricultural crops against vermin and infectious diseases, to creation of new plants and sorts with useful properties.

21. Г.М. Падчуфарава, З.Я. Сярова, В.В. Карпук. Пекталiтычныя ферменты Helminthosporium teres Sacc. //Весцi Акадэмii навук БССР. Сер. бiялагiчных навук. 1994. № 1. С. 15-18. [Podchufaroba G.M., Serova Z.J., Karpuk V.V. Pectolytic enzymes of Helminthosporium teres Sacc. // Proceedings of the Аcademy of Sciences of the BSSR. Ser. Biologic. Sciences. 1994. № 1. P. 15-18]. Summary : Pectinase activity and pathogenicity of Helminthosporium teres Sacc. in course of the fungus development in culture are studied. The action mechanisms of fungal pectinase on development of disease symptoms on barley leaves is discussed.

22. З.Я. Серова, В.В. Карпук. Механизмы адгезии в формировании облигатных отношений в фитопатосистемах. //Эколого-экономические основы усовершенствования интегрированных систем защиты растений от вредителей, болезней и сорняков. Тезисы докладов научно-производственной конференции, посвященной 25-летию БЕЛНИИЗР (Минск-Прилуки, 14-16 февраля 1996 г.). В 2-х частях. Часть II. – Минск: ПКФ "Экаунт", 1996, с. 46-47. [Serova Z.J., Karpuk V.V. Adhesion mechanisms in formation obligate relations in phytopathosystems // Ekologo-economic bases of improvement of the integrated systems of protection of plants from vermin, illnesses and weeds. Thesises of reports of the research-and-production conference devoted to 25th anniversary Bel.Sci.Res.Inst.Plant Protection (Minsk-Priluki, on February, 14-16th, 1996). Part II. - Minsk: "Ekaunt", 1996, P. 46-47.]. Summary : Among initial events of interaction of pathogenic fungi and plants special value belongs to adhesion – to property of adjoining tissues to coupling (sticking). At obligate parasites who almost completely have lost ability to extracellular excretion of metabolites, the other mechanisms for contact interaction with tissues of the host have developed. They are connected with superficial interaction of structures of a plant cell and pathogen where forces of a mutual attraction are expressed much more strongly, than at reaction of liquid or gaseous substances. In the course of adhesion two consecutive certificates are made: recognition of contacting surfaces and an exchange of molecules between them. Possible ways of signalling between superficial structures of a rye and rust activators are discussed.

23. Карпук В.В. , Серова З.Я., Гесь Д.К. Состояние ядерного цикла у поражённых ржавчиной клеток ржи. Второй съезд Белор. об-ва физиологов растений (18-20 окт. 1995 г., Минск): Тез. докл. / Ред. коллегия: В.П. Деева, Т.Г. Янчевская, В.М. Иванченко и др.– Минск, 1995, с. 16–17. [Karpuk V.V., Serova Z.J., Гесь D.K. Status of a nuclear cycle at the cells of a rye defeated with a rust. Second congress of Byelorussian Society of plant physiologists (18–20 Oct. 1995, Minsk): Theses of reports /Ed. Board: V.P. Deyeva, T.G. Janchevskaja, V.M. Ivanchenko, etc. – Minsk, 1995, P. 16–17.]. Summary : Carried out by us earlier ultrastructural, bio-and cytochemical researches revealed in mesophyll cells of a rye infected with haustoria of Puccinla dispersa or P. graminis f. sp. secalis the lowered colourability of nuclei the basic dyes, parity increase euhromatin/geterohromatin, absence of double quantity of DNA. Increase of relation RNA/DNA, some decrease in the relation hуstones/DNA, and also increase synthetic, secretic, lysosomal, hydrolytic activity in the infected tissues depending on character of compatibility of a plant and pathogen. The analysis results of researches and their comparison to literary data allows to conclude, that observable changes in the cells infected with a rust corresponds mainly to the presynthetic period of interphase (G1). Rust infection does not stimulate chromosomes replication (S) in defeated cells and involvement their in mitotic cycle (G2 and M).

24. Карпук В.В. , Серова З.Я. Вовлечение ядер во взаимодействие с ржавчинным патогеном: структурное исследование. Второй съезд Белор. об-ва физиологов растений (18-20 окт. 1995 г., Минск): Тез. докл./ Ред. коллегия: В.П. Деева, Т.Г. Янчевская, В.М. Иванченко и др. – Минск, 1995, с. 17–18. [Karpuk V.V., Serova Z.J. Involving of nuclei in interaction with rust pathogen: structural research. Second congress of Byelorussian Society of plant physiologists (18–20 Oct. 1995, Minsk): Theses of reports /Ed. Board: V.P. Deyeva, T.G. Janchevskaja, V.M. Ivanchenko, etc. – Minsk, 1995, P. 17–18.]. Summary : It is established, that a part mesophyll cells taxis of nuclei induces the contact to hyphae, and this phenomenon is more strongly expressed in resistant combinations the host-patogen, than in susceptible. In the next cells taxis of nuclei aside parhogen do not occur. The direct interrelation of areas nuclei and protoplasm is found out. In infected plant cells S nuclei /S protoplasm raises approximately on 10%, however it does not lead to cell fission that is shown in absence of metaphase nuclei. It is revealed considerable heteromorph nuclei of mesophyll rye, which is expressed in the unequal sizes and internal structure of nuclei. Two basic forms of structural changes of nuclei in reply to Infection are noted: the lowered colourability of chromatin material, its non-uniform distribution in a nuclei and nucleolus presence, is peculiar to the first, that it is basically characteristic for large kernels; the second – high paintinability, consolidation of nuclear substance and absence of the expressed nucleolus that is observed, basically, at small on the size nuclei. Character of taxis mesophyll nuclei to pathogen, and also distinctions of a structurally functional status of cells as a part of this tissue indicate on in dependence reception of fungus and formation of response not only from specific features of co-operating organisms, but also from a physiological status of separate plant cells.

25. В.В. Карпук. Экзо- и эндоцитоз в развитии структурно-функциональных взаимоотношений между растением и грибным патогенном //Физиология растений. 1996. V. 43, № 5. С. 753–764. [Karpuk V.V. Exo - and endocytosis in development of structurally functional mutual relations between plant and pathogenic fungus. //Physiology of plants (Russia). 1996 V. 43, № 5. P. 753-764.]. Summary : Exo- both endocytosis represent interconnected and various directed vesicular movings of substances - from cell or in cell, accordingly. In the pathogenic necrotrophic fungi it is observed the allocating in growth media the big number of various connections, in particular, toxins and enzymes, process of exocytosis is very active, but it is less expressed in biotrophic fungi at which the majority excreted substances remains within their cellular wall. In plant cells exocytosis occurs constantly, but it is especially expressed in reply to infection: at formation of papillae and around a haustoria. Haustoria of biotrophic pathogens, surrounded with pushed in host cell plasmalemma, are similar with endosomes. At defeat by necrotrophic pathogens a numerous small invaginations of plasmatic membrane come to light at the initial stages of infectious process, but subsequently these signs of cytosis disappear. In susceptible plants it marks lower level output of lysosome vesicles and their merges with extrahaustorial membrane. In the review value of exo- and endocytosis in formation of pathological process at the plants infected bio-and necrotrophic fungal pathogens is analyzed.

26. V.V. Karpuk. Contribution of Exo- and Endocytosis to the Relationships between Pathogenic Fungi and Host Plants // Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 1996. Vol. 43, № 5. P. 656–664. Summary : Exo- and endocytosis are interrelated and oppositely directed processes of vesicular transport of compounds into or out of a cell, respectively. Exocytosis is very active in necrotrophic pathogenic fungi that secrete a great number of diverse compounds, toxins and enzymes in particular. This phenomenon is less pronounced in biotrophs, in which most secreted substances remain bound to the cell wall. In plant cells, exocytosis occurs continuously but is most pronounced near papillae and haustoria as a response to infection. The haustoria of biotrophs surrounded by invaginated host plasmalemma are similar to endosomes. Abundant plasmalemma invaginations are seen at the beginning of infection, but later no evidence of cytosis was observed. Few lysosomal vesicles were produced and fused with the extrahaustorial membrane in susceptible plants. The contribution of exo- and endocytosis to plant pathogenesis in the course of plant infection by bio- and necrotrophic fungi is analyzed in this review.

27. Серова З.Я., Гесь Д.К., Карпук В.В. , Афанасенко О.С. Развитие систем патогенности у разных по типу паразитизма грибов. //Проблемы экспериментальной ботаники: К 100-летию со дня рождения В.Ф. Купревича. – Мн.: Беларуская навука, 1997, с. 185–199. [Serova Z.J., Ges D.K., Karpuk V.V., Afanasenko O.S. Development pathogenicity systems of fungi differented on type of parasitism on plants.// Problems of Experimental Botany: To the Centenary Jubilee of V. F. Kuprevich. – Мinsk: Byelarussian science, 1997. P. 185–199.]. Summary : The pathogenicity systems of causal agents of a net spot blotch of barley and a rye stem rust and leaf rust are studied. The determinants of pathogenicity of facultative parasite Н. teres are proteases and peroxidases, the enzymes secreted this fungus, and also hexan-dissolved fraction of the toxin allocation of which begins on 2 – 3rd days fungus growth in culture in vitro. Secretor activity of obligate parasites P. dispersa and P. graminis f. sp. secalis it is reduced. Instead of it these fungi form a number of morphological structure thanks to which they create a biotrophic intacellular parasitism attributed with an absent destruction of tissues of a feeding plant. Among them the function pathogenicity determinants carries out haustorium – the infectious structure that provides for contact between endogenic molecules of host and pathogen сеlls.

28. Серова З.Я., Карпук В.В. Структурные взаимодействия в фитопатосистемах // Проблемы экспериментальной ботаники: К 100-летию со дня рождения В.Ф. Купревича. – Мн.: Беларуская навука, 1997, с. 245-267. Structural interactions in phytopathosystems. [Problems of Experimental Botany: To the Centenary Jubilee of V.F. Kuprevich. – Minsk: Byelarussian Science, 1997. P. 245-267]. Summary : Features of structural interactions of plants and fungi differing with type of parasitism that has allowed to reveal a generality and distinctions at formation obligate and facultative relations in phytopathosystems are studied in dynamics of pathogenesis. The structural mechanism (an infectious vesicle formation) with which begins a divergence means of a food at parasitic fungi is identified. Depending on functional activity of this mechanism a character display of fungal pathogenicity divides on bio- or necrotrophic types.

29. З.Я. Серова, Д.К. Гесь, Н.Г. Волковская, В.В. Карпук. Физиолого-биохимические аспекты протопатологического процесса у растений. // Актуальные проблемы фитовирусологии и защиты растений. Материалы научной конференции, посвященной 85-летию со дня рождения члена-корреспондента АН РБ, профессора Антона Лаврентьевича Амбросова (Прилуки, 16 июня 1997 года). / Ред. колл.: В.Ф. Самерсов (предс.) и др. – Минск: ПКФ "Экаунт", 1997. С. 144–145. [Z.J. Serova, D.K. Ges, N.G. Volkovskaja, V.V. Karpuk. Physiological and biochemical aspects of protopathological process at plants // Actual problems of phytovirology and protection of plants. Materials of the scientific conference devoted to the 85 anniversary from the date of a birth of member-correspondent Аcad. Sci. Rep. of Belarus, professor A. L. Ambrosov (Priluki, on June, 16th, 1997). / Editorial Board: V.F. Samersov (chief), etc. – Minsk: "Ekaunt", 1997. P. 144–145.]. Summary : Now the attention of phytopathophysiologists attract to researches of mechanisms which function in phytopathosystem before occurrence of parasitic relations between cooperating organisms. Such interest is caused by that during this period the basis on which are developed a recognition processes leading to formation of specific trophic communications is pawned. Germinated on a surface of a plant tissue fungal spores get into the internal leaf space environment – intercellular space of mesophyll, where their subsequent structurally functional development is carried out, ending result of which is access to reception of nutrition sources. For obligate parasites the protoparasitism period includes stage of fungal ontogenesis which occured as prehaustorial. Its course is accompanied by formation of some morphological structures differing with functional displays. For facultative parasites the period protopathogenesis covers an interval ontogenesis from the moment of germination spores to beginning excretion of toxins. In the latter case functional activity is not always coupled with formation of corresponding morphological structures for display of pathogenicity. However both at facultative, and at obligate parasites these stages coincide with the asymptomatic period of illness. That is why features of macromolecular structure of intercellular environment predetermining the answer of a plant tissue on invaded infection, were a task of our research. We study changes activity of polyphenoloxidase, phosphatase and chitinase, occurring during development in an intercellular liquid of a rye and barley germlings an aexciters of a stem or leaf rusts and leaf net spot blotch, accordingly. It is shown, that chitinase activity in process growth of pathogen increases at rye and barley plants. Polyphenoloxidase and phosphatase activities in barley leaf tissues decreases, whereas in rye leaves – raises. Change of a correlation of these activities in an intercellular liquid regulates initial development of pathogen, influenced on a way of getting of food (bio-or necrotrophic), and also on transition of facultative parasites from one type of a food on another. Noted functional activity is coordinated with corresponding updatings exo- and endocytosis in cells of plants during this period.

30. З.Я. Серова, В.В. Карпук. Ультраструктура эпидермиса ржи при поражении мучнистой росой. // Актуальные проблемы фитовирусологии и защиты растений. Материалы научной конференции, посвященной 85-летию со дня рождения члена-корреспондента АН РБ, профессора Антона Лаврентьевича Амбросова (Прилуки, 16 июня 1997 года) / Ред. колл.: В.Ф. Самерсов (предс.) и др. – Минск: ПКФ "Экаунт", 1997. С. 70–72. [Z.J. Serova, V.V. Karpuk. Ultrastructure epidermis of a rye at defeat by powdery mildew. // Actual problems of phytovirology and protection of plants. Materials of the scientific conference devoted to the 85 anniversary from the date of a birth of member-correspondent Аcad. Sci. Rep. of Belarus, professor A. L. Ambrosov (Priluki, on June, 16th, 1997) / Editorial Board: V.F. Samersov (chief), etc. – Minsk: "Ekaunt", 1997. P. 70–72.]. Summary : After an attachment ectophytic hyphae and appressoria to an external wall of epidermal cells there are dark inclusions, and deep folds in a plasmatic membrane; the membrane in contact sites becomes electron-dense without accurate internal structure. In some places meet light papillar stratifications on a wall, and in plasmalemma invaginations – particles of amorphous dark substance. Cytoplasm of epidermal cells located under the vegetative hyphae does not show sharp changes of ultrastructure: However in those epidermal cells where developing hyphal tips are transformed in аppressoria, the mass congestion of elements of agranular endoplasmatic reticulum and vials of Golgi, and also small vacuoles owing to what cytoplasm of such cells in a zone of an attachment of a mushroom gets unusual foamy structure is observed. Large vacuoles are surrounded by a gently rolling membrane, more dark, than at healthy cells, and contain friable, fibrillar substance. Host cytoplasm is filled with transparent substance with a small impurity fibrillar a product. In him cysternes of agranular reticulum contain, transformed, apparently, in vacuoles and multivesicular bodies. Central vacuole without membrane segrosomes and other internal inclusions it is surrounded by an equal membrane. Ultrastructural changes epidermal rye cells testify that under influence powdery mildew haustoria in cytoplasm of the host are activated lytic processes, proteinsythetic ability decreases, and the exchange of products initiated in a zone of contact in prehaustorial stage changes. Structural signs endo- and exocytosis that marked in prehaustorial stage of interaction disappear after formation haustoria owing to what through extrahaustorial membrane from cytoplasm of the host rather low-molecular products which are taken out passive and active by on channels of a membrane can be allocated only. An active role in carrying over of substances from the host and in power supply of this process plays haustoriom whereas vacuoles and cytoplasm of epidermal cells carry out, apparently, a role of a source necessary pathogen substances. It is possible to assume, that fibrills, connecting haustorial surface with extrahaustorial membrane, are as suppresors of protective host reactions, as does possible parasitism of a mushroom.

31. В.В. Карпук, З.Я. Серова. Тонкая структура гиф и гаусториев возбудителя мучнистой росы ржи // Актуальные проблемы фитовирусологии и защиты растений. Материалы научной конференции, посвященной 85-летию со дня рождения члена-корреспондента АН РБ, профессора Антона Лаврентьевича Амбросова (Прилуки, 16 июня 1997 года). / Ред. колл.: В.Ф. Самерсов (предс.) и др. – Минск: ПКФ "Экаунт", 1997. С. 72–73. [Thin structure of a hyphae and haustoria the exciter of powdery mildew of a rye // Actual problems of phytovirology and protection of plants. Materials of the scientific conference devoted to the 85 anniversary from the date of a birth of member-correspondent Аcad. Sci. Rep. of Belarus, professor A. L. Ambrosov (Priluki, on June, 16th, 1997). / Editorial Board: V.F. Samersov (chief), etc. – Minsk: "Ekaunt", 1997. P. 72–73.]. Summary : The cover (cell wall) of haustoria looks as single-layered, but its external part is loosened and passes in a dense network thin dark fibrils which penetrate extrahaustorial matrix and reach extrahaustorial membranes. Haustorial plasmalemma twisting, forms paramural bodies and plasmalemmasomes in cytoplasm. Feature of ultrastructure finger-shaped outgrowths on each side haustorial body is very high concentration of mitochondria, that testifies to course there the processes demanding power expenses. Vacuoles in finger-shaped выростах have the small sizes and contain small vesicles and the rests of membranes. Noted features, apparently, say that lateral outgrowths represent the most active part of specialised haustorial cell. Presence plasmalemmasomes, cytoplasmatic vials, multivesicular bodies and vacuoles with dark substance and the rests of membranes at invaginatia plasmalemma haustoria testifies on pinocytose absorption of substances and recyclose of membranes to a surface and back in these cells of fungus. Multivesicular bodies and vacuoles are, apparently, a place of accumulation and digestion of nutrients absorbed from cell of the host. Vacuole, besides, carries out autophage function in growing old cells of fungus. The thin structure a hyphae and haustoria the exciter of powdery mildew of a rye is similar to structure of corresponding cells at other biological forms Е graminis. Feature of ultrastructure haustoria in comparison with cells the hyphae is that in them signs of carrying over of substances from a plasmatic membrane in vacuole by endocytose come to light that can be connected with an establishment of their mutual relations with a plant-host.

32. Карпук В.В. , Серова 3. Я., Гесь Д. К., Волковская Н. Г. Вакуолярно-лизосомальная система злаков и ее роль в развитии болезнеустойчивости // Роль адаптивной интенсификации земледелия в повышении эффективности аграрного производства: Доклады Международной научной конференции, Жодино, 18-20 февраля 1998 г. Том II. / Ред. коллегия: В.Н. Шлапунов и др.; Науч. рецензенты: Кукреш Л.В., Безлюдный Н.Н. – Жодино: Бел НИИЗК, 1998. С. 145–146. [Karpuk V.V., Serova Z.J., Ges D.K., Volkovskaja N.G. Vacuolar-lysosomal system of cereals and its role in development of illnessresistance.// the Role of an adaptive intensification of agriculture in increase of efficiency of agrarian manufacture: Reports of International scientific conference, Zhodino, on 18-20 February, 1998. Part II. / Editorial Board: V.N. Shlapunov, etc.; Scientific Reviewers: Kukresh L.V., Bezljudnyj N.N. – Zhodino: BelSRIAF, 1998. P. 145–146.]. Summary : The analysis of the received results testifies that character of a parity of processes endo- and exocytosis, shown on features vacuolar-lysosomal systems, can serve as criterion for an estimation of level resistance of a rye and barley to rusts, powdery mildews and helminthosporiose phytopathogenic fungi.

33. Серова 3. Я., Гесь Д. К., Волковская Н. Г., Карпук В.В. Межклеточное пространство инфицированной клетки – как среда возникновения адаптационных реакций к воздействию грибных патогенов. // Роль адаптивной интенсификации земледелия в повышении эффективности аграрного производства: Доклады Международной научной конференции, Жодино, 18-20 февраля 1998 г. Том II. / Ред. коллегия: В.Н. Шлапунов и др.; Науч. рецензенты: Кукреш Л.В., Безлюдный Н.Н. – Жодино: Бел НИИЗК, 1998. С. 147-148. [Serova Z.J., Ges D.K., Volkovskaja N.G., Karpuk V.V. Intercellular space of the infected cell - as the environment of occurrence of adaptable reactions to influence fungal pathogens // The Role of an adaptive intensification of agriculture in increase of efficiency of agrarian manufacture: Reports of International scientific conference, Zhodino, on 18-20 February, 1998. Part II. / Editorial Board: V.N. Shlapunov, etc.; Scientific Reviewers: Kukresh L.V., Bezljudnyj N.N. - Zhodino: BelSRIAF, 1998. P. 147-148.]. Summary : The intercellular space is extracytoplasmatic component of mesophyll tissue. It include in an external surface of a cellular cover and connections washing off it. Set of such cellular components also forms the original structure named intercellular or free space, and also apoplast. In its function this cellular structure is connected with realization of such major physiological processes as secretion, transport of substances, selective resorbtion. At the same time, in intercellular space there is a development primary infectious hyphae of rust fungi, and then an intercellular mycelium, forming sporogenic cells. Аpexes of hyphae, contacting with apoplast, form haustorial mother cells and haustoria, getting inside mesophyll cells where actually parasitic relations are established. A consequence of this interaction is occurrence in intercellular space of various adaptable reactions which displays on degree get the form of resistance or susceptibility. In connection with told, we make attempt to study physiological-biochemical structure of the mesophyll intercellular liquid which are washing off mesophyll cells at leaves infected with a rust of a rye, having concentrated the basic attention to finding-out character of changes activity of enzymes which according to carried out by them functions carry to markers of the induced resistance. We find out the same changes in activity peroxidase, chitinase, acid phosphatase. Activity of these enzymes in all variants of experiments (Derzhavin's resistant plants and susceptible cultivars) increases in comparison with the control (healthy plants) that gives the basis to think about participation of intercellular space in formation of response with properties of protection already at a stage initial ecto- and endophytic developments of exciters of a rust. Increase chitinase and phosphatase activities, interfaced to stimulation of processes of digestion or lysis of fungus and plant components, specifies in reorganization by the host own main trophycity. It is expressed that is exclusive autotrophic on its food mesophyll cell of rye leaf gets at disease heterotrophic properties, that is At the expense of allocation in intercellular space hydrolytic enzymes it tries to receive a source of carbon from exogenic organic substance, preliminary stimulating in apoplast the processes of necrobiosis, leading to deading of cells. Degree of heterotrophycity mesophyll cell is proportional to level of the arisen protection against influence on it pathogenic fungus. Acknowledgement told are the cytochemical researches carried out by us on character of distribution phosphatase activity as in cytoplasm, plasmalemma, wall of a mesophyll rye cell, and in structures of the exciter of a rust. Change of this activity judged on distinction of a congestion лизосом. At contacts tips of infectious hyphae with mesophyl cells occurs lagging behind plasmalemma from a wall and increase lysosomal activity in formed periplasmatic space. On the contrary, at formation parasitic (haustorial) relations lysosomal activity in cells of the host decreases at parallel increase in structures of rustfungus. Resistant reaction is shown at increase lysosomal activity. The comparison of character of influence lysosomal activity isolated mesophyll (i.e. tissue of leaf from which epidermis is removed) on germ tubes growth of the exciter of rust with similar effect of a root hair has shown, that IN both cases uniformity of action is found out which is shown IN development inhibition germ tubes. As the root hair possesses exclusively heterotrophuc properties, there are all bases to consider, that these properties arise in autotrophic mesophyll cell, contacting with germ tubes or hyphae, developing IN intercellular space. Display degree heterotrophycity is proportional to degree of display of resistance. Possibly, level display of heterotrophycity to rust fungi can be used in the future as an indicator adaptivity of rye tissue. Its biochemical expression is character of lysosomal activity which it is necessary to consider at selection a sorts.

34. Карпук В.В. , Серова З.Я. Влияние мучнистой росы на структурное состояние эпидермиса ржи. // “Современные проблемы микологии, альгологии и фитопатологии” (сборник статей). / Ред. М.Ю. Дьяков.– М.: МГУ – ИД “Муравей”, 1998.– С. 47–49. [The powdery mildew’s influence on structural state of rye epidermis // “Modern problems of Mycology, Algology and Phytopathology” (The collection of articles). / Ed. by M.J. Djakov. – М: the Moscow State University – PH "Ant", 1998. – P. 47–49.]. Summary : The results of light- and electron-microscopic, histo- and cyto-chemical investigation of epidermal tissues susceptible and resistant sorts of rye at infection with exciter of rye specialized form of powder mildew of cereals are presented and discussed with analogous dates on mesophyll tissue of contrast rye sorts at infection with exciter of stem rust of cereals. The causal agent of powdery mildew of cereals Erysiphe graminis DC., as well as the causal agent of stem rust Puccinia graminis Pers., are characterised by narrow specific specificity to a host-plant, shown in formation of highly specialised forms by them: wheaten, barley, rye etc. All these forms of powdery mealydew are attracted exclusively to epidermal tissue of the host defeated with them, and than differ from the corresponding forms of a stem rust localised, basically, in mesophyll tissue. These distinctions are connected, in turn, with inhabitation features of powdery mildew and rust fungi thanks to which they are qualified accordingly as ecto- and endoparasites of plants. The least studied aspect of bases of powdery mealdew exciters specialisation are structural and histochemical changes occurring in epidermal cells during invasion and parasitism of haustoria. Therefore we fulfilled comparative histochemical and ultrastructural researches of epidermal rye cells, subjected to influence of powdery mealdew and a rust. It is revealed, that penetration of Е. graminis f.sp. secalis in epidermis and formation of parasitic relations with cells of host leaf occurs also, as well as at other specialised forms of this pathogen. Appressoria formed by germinating conidia are attached to an external wall of rectangular cells and auxiliary cells of stomas, not mentioning closing cells of stomas and trichoblasts. Thin infectious outgrowth of appressorium, invading inside epidermal cell, extends in an infectious vesicle which is transformed in extended along a cell haustorium with finger-shaped outgrowth on the ends, remaining thus always outside of invaginated plasmalemma, named an extrahaustorial membrane. Carrying out of histochemical reactions on callose and protein in an external wall of epidermis has allowed to reveal round a pore pathogen penetration a painted hаlо in which sometimes it is possible to distinguish about three colour rings, and under invading infectious outgrowths - local lens-liked expansions of periplasmatic spaces filled with adjournment of substances (papillae). However papillae do not stop penetration of pathogen and after development of haustoria are saved in the form of the painted ring round a haustorial neck. Peroxidase activity (in histochemical reactions with benzidin as substrate) is concentrated basically to an external wall of epidermis, and in the infected cells it is saved at the same level, as at healthy cells, except for unpainted sites round points of appressoria penetration (halo). Possibly, activity of peroxidase in these sites is inhibited with pathogen. After formation of haustoria colourless halo in a wall disappear. In fungal cells peroxidase activity does not come to light. Activity of ATPase on plasmalemma of healthy epidermal rye cells and on extrahaustorial membrane defeated epidermal cells, judging by a product histochemical reactions absence, is not found out. However it is marked in haustoria of fungus. Histochemical distribution activities of succinatdehydrogenase and cytochromoxidase in epidermal cells of a rye defeated with powdery mildew, was similar. Their activity in cytoplasm of haustoria, as a rule, considerably above, than in cytoplasm of healthy and defeated epidermal cells. Revealing the big number mitochondrial particles in lateral finger-shaped outgrowths of haustoria testifies to it whereas their quantity in epidermal cells of rye is always very low. Thus activity of cytochromoxidase, as a rule, below the activity of succinatdehydrogenase. The basic result of these tests, consists that haustoria of fungus possess high power activity. This circumstance defines, possibly, the leading role of pathogen in realisation of its parasitism in epidermal plant host cells. In healthy epidermal cells of rye activity of acid phospatase is distributed on a wall and is absent in cytoplasm. At cells defeat by powdery mildew phosphatase activity appears still in small lysosomes of cytoplasms nearby appressoria; such congestions of lysosomes are more considerable in cells concerning resistant semi-wild rye Derzhavin's, than in cells of a susceptible sort of rye Belarusssian 23. After penetration pathogen lysosomal activity in cytoplasm of the host disappears, but remains very high inside haustoria. Apparently, increased lysosomal activity in plant cytoplasm under appressoria suppresses with fungus in time and after its transition to parasitism. Central vacuole of epidermal cells of rye after defeating with haustoria Е. graminis f. sp. secalis saves property to absorb and accumulate inside neutral red from a water solution though intensity of colouring of vacuoles at the infected cells decreases. It, possibly, says that barrier ability tonoplast of host cells, keeping substances containing in vacuole, decreases under influence of pathogen haustoria. Electron microscopic researches show, that already at contact appressoria of fungus with epidermal cells of host in them there occures a mass congestion of agranular endoplasmatic reticulum elements and Golgi vials owing to what cytoplasm under fungus beginning penetration becomes strong vacuolated, gets "foamy" structure. Possibly, it is accompanied by infringements in work of Golgi apparatus as its dyctiosomes extend and break up to vials and vesicles. Haustoria of pathogen deeply press in central vacuole so extrahaustorial membrane put down directly nearby tonoplast. Extrahaustorial membrane almost in 2 times more thickly, than a non-invaginated part of plasmalemma. Extrahaustorial membranes join an external surface thin dense-disposed fibrills, being continuation of the external loosened part of haustorial wall. In extrahaustorial matrix does not contain membrane vesicles and a contour of extrahaustorial membrane is equal, whereas a contour of vacuolar membrane going to it parallel is wavy. Folds of extrahaustorial membrane are marked only at place of input haustoria in a cell of host; in the same place, round a haustorial neck are available both fragments of agranular endoplasmatic reticulum and abundant small vacuoles of irregular form, saved, apparently, as a part of that "foamy" cytoplasm that is formed before penetration of haustorium. Thin cytoplasmatic layer around haustorial body, as a rule, is electron-transparent with an addition of fibrillar substance and this layer does not contain mitochondria, tubes of endoplasmatic reticulum, ribosomes. Epidermal cells of a rye defeated with haustoria of Е. graminis f. sp. secalis, have some differs from same epidermal and mesophyll cells defeated with haustoria of exciters of a stem or leaf rust in which extrahaustorial membrane forms deep evagination in a direction to haustoria. Behind it the cytoplasmatic layer containing endoplasmatic reticulum, the ribosomes separate mitochondria always settles down. We believe, that different degree corrugatence of plant cell membranes (extrahaustorial and tonoplast), shown depending on infecting of rye with obligate ecto- or endoparasites, and also presence or absence between these membranes of the cytoplasmatic layer filled with ribosomes, tanks of endoplasmatic reticulum, vesicles, indicate on features of a parasitic food of fungus investigated by us. Powdery mildew fungi, owing to signs of low activity of anabolism and exocytosis shown by defeated cells, absorb basically the low-molecular products accumulated in vacuole. Rust exciters use for a food, apparently, as well high-molecular connections, secreted in extrahaustorial matrix from a cytoplasmatic layer. It, possibly, also defines the unequal tissue trophic specialisation peculiar for these pathogen.

35. Карпук В.В. , Серова З.Я., Гесь Д.К. Особенности гомеостатической системы инфицированных злаков и ее роль в формировании болезнеустойчивости. // Молекулярная генетика и биотехнология: Материалы Международной конференции «Молекулярная генетика и биотехнология», 6-8 апреля 1998 г., г. Минск. – Мн.: 1998. С. 39-41. Karpuk V.V., Serova Z.J., Ges D.K. Homeostasis system features of the infected cereals and its role in formation illnessresistance. // Molecular genetics and biotechnology: Materials of the International conference «Molecular genetics and biotechnology», on April, 6-8, 1998th, Minsk. – Minsk: 1998. P. 39-41. Summary : Structural peculiarities of vacuolar-lysosomal system in epidermal and mesophyll tissues of rye and barley seedlings health and infected with pathogenic fungi Erysiphe graminis f.sp secalis /Egs/, Helminthosporium (=Pyrenophora) teres /Ht/, Puccinia graminis f.sp. secalis /Pgs/ and Puccinia dispersa /Pd/ were investigated applied light and electron microscopy and histochemistry. Concave arches of plasma membrane in rye and barley epidermal cells at their contact sites with appressoria of Egs and Ht, and the same in rye mesophyll cells at their contact sites with intercellular hyphae of Pgs and Pd as well as endo-and exocytosis signs were revealed. That is suggesed the turgor-regulating plant cell compartments (i.e. vacuoles) and the cytoskeleton are involved in interactions of plants with pathogenic fungi. Local increase of lysosomal activity (detected histochemically on of rye and barley epidermis during pre-parasitic interaction with Egs and Ht, but fall the lysosomal activity after transition these fungi to biotrophic or necrotrophic parasitism were found. Increased acid phosphatase activity were seen both on hyphal and haustorial surfaces of the rust fungi, and on the wall and in cytoplasm of mesophyll cells, but the activity were suppressed just in walls spots where adhesion took place and throughout the cytoplasm after haustoria penetrated into the cells. Preservation of plant cell vacuoles ability to accumulate neutral red after infection of tissues with rusts and in smaller degree with powdery mildew, and lost this ability of vacuoles in epidermal cells penetrated by Ht and in neighbouring epidermal and mesophyll cells were noted. That is evidence for biotrophic and necrotrophic fungi exert diverse influence on vacuoles of their host plants. Increase lysosomal activity in plant cells observed at initial stage of their interactions with biotrophic and necrotrophic fungi, which more expressed in resistant variety and non-host plants than in susceptible varieties, shows on appearance of heterotrophic activity in epidermal and mesophyll tissues switched by the pathogen and directed against the latter. It follows that this ability of plants can be used for elaboration of plant disease resistance evaluation methods and for work out manners of physiological regulation in developing fungal-plant pathosystems.

35. Карпук В.В., Серова З.Я. Субклеточная локализация кальция в тканях ржи, пораженных ржавчиной, и его роль в развитии биотрофных фитопатосистем. // Регуляция роста, развития и продуктивности растений (Материалы Международной научной конференции, г. Минск, 9-11 ноября 1999 г.)./ Ред. коллегия: Н.А. Ламан (предс.), и др.; Научные рецензенты: Б.И. Якушев, С.И. Гриб. – Минск, 1999. С. 188-189. [Subcellular localisation of calcium in the tissues of a rye defeated with a rust, and its role in development biotrophicphytopathosystems // Regulation of growth, development and efficiency of plants (Materials of the International scientific conference, Minsk, on November, 9-11th, 1999). / Editoral board: N.A. Laman (chairman), etc.; Scientific reviewers: B.I. Yakushev, S.I. Grib. - Minsk, 1999. P. 188-189.]. Summary : It is known, that mushrooms excrete ions Са2+ and hydrolytic enzymes. But data about participation Са2+ in intercellular relations of plants with phytopathogenic fungi are not present. Therefore for understanding of a role of calcium in rust disease of a rye the investigation localisation of Са2+ in healthy tissues of leaf and infected with Puccinia graminis f.sp. secalis (Pgs) or P. dispersa (Pd) using three electron-histohemical the methods corresponding to definition free, labile and strongly connected Са2+ is spent on / Gajer, 1974/. Besides, sections of leaf we contrasted with ruthenium red for detection calcium pectates. We also revealed on plasmatic membrane (PМ) of plant callose synthesis which depends on presence external Са2 + /Kauss, 1994/. In a rye mesophyll at defeat by a stem or leaf rust we find out similar changes in localisation Са2 + which consist in increase of the maintenance free and labile Са2+ in a narrow inteface between PМ and endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) in places of contact of cells with the hyphae, that more strongly expressed in a resistant the host-patogen combination and it is weaker in the susceptible one. Labile Са2+ (Са2+-connecting protein fibers) comes to light in ER and on mitochondria, located nearby PМ and extrahaustorial membranes (EHMе), and free or connected Са2+ - on vacuoles, in dictyosomes Golgi, but disappearing in the defeated cell. It speaks about removal of ions Са2 + from cytozoliс sites close a hyphae and haustoria of rust fungus where their concentration raises, and accumulation to ER and in vacuoles (in the form of labile and strongly connected Са2+), and also about occurrence calcium bridges between PМ (EHМе) and ER, calling sticking togaether of these membranes. It does not occur in healthy cells. In Derzhavin's rye defeated with Pd the resistant rye, absence labile Са2+ in space between EHMe and ER noticed that accompanies development in these cells fast necrosis is (hypersusceptibility - ?). Extrahaustorial matrix (EHМа) does not react with ruthenium red, but EHMa is painted on callose which is synthesised on EHMe and on PМ in places of contact of mesophyll cells with a fungus. Increase there concentration Са2+ is probable stimulates synthesis of callose which, in turn detains him on a way to cytoplasm. Results specify that Са2+ takes part in mushroom recognition on a surface of a plant cell, a signal transmission in a nuclei and regulation of various responses. Under the influence of rust fungus allocation a phosphstase and ions Са2+ changes EHМе occur. Phosphatase hydrolyzes phospholipids to Р043+ and lipids which are absorbed with pathogen. Ions Са2 + pass through a membrane and are localised to ER. Free Са2+ connects and simultaneously delivers a building material for liquidation of damages EHMе, promoting that to occurrence a biotrophic feeding. Increase of level Са2+ in cytozol breaks the functions of apparatus Golgi, in particular, of processes cytosis and, as consequence, induces abnormal exocytosis – i.e. directly from ER. It is shown in merge of ER tubal cisterns with evaginations of EHМе soaked up by a fungus thanks to what there is a continuous receipt of nutrients from the host propoplsms to biotropgic pathogen haustoria.

37. Карпук В.В., Серова З.Я., Гесь Д.К. Экстрацеллюлярный аппарат фитопатогенных грибов как фактор регуляции трофности во взаимоотношениях с хозяином. // Регуляция роста, развития и продуктивности растений (Материалы Международной научной конференции, г. Минск, 9-11 ноября 1999 г.)./ Ред.коллегия: Н.А. Ламан (предс.), и др.; Научные рецензенты: Б.И. Якушев, С.И. Гриб. – Минск, 1999. С. 189-190. [Карпук В.В., Серова З.Я., Гесь Д.К. Экстрацеллюлярный the device of phytopathogenic mushrooms as the regulation factor трофности in mutual relations with the owner. // Regulation of growth, development and efficiency of plants (Materials of the International scientific conference, Minsk, on November, 9-11th, 1999)./Editoral board: N.A. Laman (chairman), etc.; Scientific reviewers: B.I. Yakushev, S.I. Grib. - Minsk, 1999. P. 189-190.]. Summary : Phytopathogenesis in all combinations investigated by us: Puccinia dispersa - a rye, P. graminis f.sp. secalis - a rye, Blumeria graminis f.sp. secalis - a rye, Pyrenophora teres - barley, begins always with adhesion fungal hyphae by means them extracellular mucous substances to plant cells. Formation of infectious structures is necessary for mushroom introduction in periplasmatic space (PS) of a plant cell. The close arrangement of ER and lomasomes in hyphae assumes, that they concern to formation of a mushroom wall and simultaneously of a lysosomal and vacuolar systems, organized in the structurally functional whole. In development of biotrophic rust fungi the role vacuolar-lysosomal systems consists in hydrolysis of reserve nutrients of germ tubes, and then - in secretion of lysosomal hydrolases and, in particular, acid phosphatase, in cellular walls of intercellular hiphae (IG) and haustoria. It is important for realization of biotrophic parasitism. Transition of fungus to parasitism at expense of plant cells protoplasm induces inhibition of phospatase activity of the host in PS (about IG) and in extrahaustorial matrix (EHМа), whence mushroom influence extends on a plant membrane, cytoplasm and on a nucleus. Ability of pathogen in closed space EHМа to suppress phosphatase activity of the host and production of lysosomes, and also to save integrity of central vacuole and by that to prevent the beginning of fast necrosis of cells in defeated site of mesophyll is interconnected with a susceptibility of plants to rust pathogen, and resistance – with preservation of its activity. Тhat is lysosomal phosphatase allocated in walls of biotroph fungus can act in a role suppressor of protective answer of a plant to this infection and as a compatibility factor. The initial increase of phosphatase activity in mesophyll cell walls, called by a fungus, probably, promotes differentiation of IG in haustorial mother cell, and also to maintain of their continuous functional interrelation with protoplasm of host as conditions of development between them biotrophic parasitic relations. Similar changes occur and at defeat of a rye by powdery mealdew. It is established, that the factors calling pathogenicity at necrotroph P. teres, the exciter of net spot blotch of leaves barley (helminthosporiose), are extracellular enzymes (in particular, pectinases, proteases, peroxidases and nucleases) and toxins, secreted in extracellular environment. Phase character toxins excretion are provided to a fungus with overcoming of passive and active structurally functional protective barriers in cells of the host. These substances come to light in the form of the electron-dense granules located around a floccus of a mushroom (like activity of acid phosphatase on fibrills in EHMа rust exciters), from which thei pass then on walls and in plant cells. At defeat of barley P. teres lysosome activity is marked only in epidermal cells under and nearby pathogen appressoria. At mesophyll cells it is not shown, as suppress with quickly extending on apoplast extracellular secretions of necrotrophic fungus in which, unlike biotrophic ones – such as exciters of a rust and powdery mealdew, are not present phosphatase, but there are toxins, proteases, nucleases and their action is directed on interruption of functional relations of plant cells with fungal IG. Тhat is the observed difference between bio-and necotrophs consists with, apparently, in molecular structure of these secretions and in a way of their influence on cells of the host.

38. Карпук В.В. Структурные механизмы сопряжённости организмов в развитии фитопатосистем. // Весцi Нац. акадэмii н. Беларусi, сер. бiял. навук. – 2000, № 4. С. 105-113. [Karpuk V.V. Structural mechanisms of coupling of organisms at development of phytopathosystems. // Proceedings of the Natl. Acad. Sci. of Belarus, Ser. biol. sci. – 2000, N 4. P. 105-113.]. Summary : In the article cellular and subcellular interactions of causal agents of stem and leaf rusts of rye, powdery mildew of rye and net spot blotch of barley with their hosts were investigated to elucidate the structural mechanisms of interactions pathogenic fungus and plant on the way integration of them into bio- or necrotrophic phytopathosystem. In result of analyses of differentiation of infection structures by these fungi and of structural changes of plasmalemma, Golgi apparatus, and endo- plasmic reticulum in epidermal or mesophyll cells of plants have been induced with according pathogenic fungi the character of participation of these cell membranes in organization of bio- or necrotrophic phytopathosystems was determined. Action of lysosomal phosphatases secreted from developing haustoria of rust or powdery mildew fungus on invaginated plasmalemma of plant cell and localization of Ca2+ have been revealed in narrow space between tight adjoining extrahaustorial membrane and endoplasmic reticulum, and they are considered as conditions needed for beginning of anomal exocytosis of substances from cytoplasma of host plant and uptake of them by haustorium of biotrophic fungus. On the contrary action of extracellular enzymes and toxins secreted from infection vesicle of net spot blotch fungus on protoplasma of plant epidermal cell has necrotic effect and ceases of starting structural and functional coupling on the base of processes of exo- and endocytosis.

39. Карпук В.В. Роль апопласта и вакуолярно-лизосомальной системы тканей листа в патогенезе злаков, вызванном грибами. // Весцi Нац. акадэмii н. Беларусi, сер. бiял. навук. – 2000, № 4. С. 114-123. [Karpuk V.V. Role of apoplast and vacuole-lysosomal systems tissues of leaf in pathogenesis of cereals, induced by fungi // Proceedings of the Natl. Acad. Sci. of Belarus, Ser. biol. sci. – 2000, N 4. P. 114-123.]. Summary : The activities of phosphatase, chitinase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in intercellular washing liquid from leaves of rye infected with rust and barley infected with net spot blotch, localization of phosphatase and peroxidase activities and state of vacuoles in tissues of sore leaves were investigated. The stimulation of activities of these enzymes in apoplast of rye with Puccinia disperse, increase in activity of chitinase in apoplast of barley influenced by Pyrenophora teres and also decrease in activities of three other enzymes were observed. A higher chitinase activity in intercellular space of diseased barley leaves as compared with its level in healthy leaves was attributed to the flow-out of enzyme from vacuoles of host, destruction of which is peculiar to necrotrophic pathogenesis caused by P. teres. The participation of lysosomal-vacuolar system of plant cells in interaction with pathogenic fungi and in the changes in apoplast, which in turn were directed at creation of the signs of heterotrophic activity on autotrophic mesophyll cells was shown. The biotrophic and the necrotrophic fungi got over this heterotrophic activity of host mesophyll cells by different manner. Peculiarities of organization of immune system in plants and animals is discussed.

40. Карпук В.В. Механизмы структурной интеграции растения и гриба при формировании патосистемы. //Цитология. 2001. Т. 43, № 9. С. 862-864. [//Cytology. 2001. Vol. 43. N 9. P. 862-864. [Mechanisms of structural integration of the plant and fungus at formation of pathosystem. © V.V. Карпук. Institute of Experimental Botany NAS of Belarus, 220733, Minsk, the Academic street, 27. //Cytology. 2001. Vol. 43. N 9. P. 862-864]. Summary : Structural and functional mechanisms of integration parasitic fungus and host plant into bio- or necrotrophic phytopathosystem at their gradual development are discussed. Reports and messages. It is known, that fungus of separate taxonomic groups during coexistence with plants adapted to survive on their organs and tissues and parasitize on them. However the mechanisms interaction of pathogens with plants and how much these mechanisms are common at formation different phytopathosystems are not clear else. In the present article studied interaction of pathogenic fungi (Puccinia graminis f.sp. secalis - Pgs, Puccinia dispersa - Pd, Blumeria graminis f.sp. secalis - Bgs and Pyrenophora teres - Pt) with cereals (a rye, barley and wheat) from the moment of fungal spores germination on a surface of leaf till to establishment of parasitic relations or tearing away of a parasite. Formation of phytopathosystems with participation of these pathogenic fungi, characterised by specificity concerning a host-plant, differing on a way of penetration into it, as on a type of parasitism, and on ecto- or endophytic character of distribution mycelium is established, that, accompanied by the structural contact of fungal and plant cells provided with substances of an external layers of a hyphae wall, having affinity to certain substances of tissues of a plant. Adhesion germ tubes (GТ) of fungal spores to a surface of leaf and differentiation of similar on morphology infectious structures (IS), including an appressorium, thin infectious outgrowth (or peg) from it and an infectious widening (IW) as vesicle or more complex forms, are necessary for mushrooms to penetrate in leaves. Fungi Bgs and Pt show a penetration with infectious outgrowth from basal site of аppressorium direct through thick cuticular wall into epidermal cell of the host. Thus infectious widening of Bgs starts to function as haustorium, sucking up substances from cell of host. More long and difficult way to infect of plants is characteristic for rusts fungi. In such species as Pgs or Pd, infectious outgroth of appressorium get through stomatal apperture of leafe in substomstal cavity and intercellular space of mesophyll parenchima and then after differentiation of a haustorial mother cell (HMC), infectious outgrowth and haustorial swelling (analogue of an infectious widening) go inside mesophyll cells of the host. Stomatal penetration becomes possible owing to presence in uredospores of rust fungi of a considerable quantity energetically rich lipids which it is not enough in conidia of Bgs (in them prevails glycogen). Recycling of these substances in GT during their growth on and penetration into leaves provides to mushrooms more or less long trophic autonomy from the host plant. At the same time ectophitic development of rust fungi depends on the contact stimulus perceived GТ as a result process of adhesive interaction with a hydrophobic surface of a plant leaf. Besides, in cell walls of leafe epidermis in and aroud attachment places of GТ and appressoria in result of corresponding histochemical reactions come to light halos and papillae, containing a сallose and proteins, in cytoplasm of these cells it can observed congestions of vesicles with phosphatase activity (lysosomes) and taxis plant cell nuclei to points of adhesion of pathogenic fungus occurs. Evidentially, epidermal cells perceive the signals arriving from formed appressoria of pathogen, and react to them. Thus, the plant influences on pathogen through structural and chemical features of a surface of leaf thanks to which it directs development fungus on differentiation IS or on its termination. Similar processes occur at development of exciter in mesophyll leaf where hyphae of rust fungi are localised in intercellular cavities, in which HMC are developed and some latter haustoria introduce into cells. The attachment of pathogen to epidermal or mesophyll surfaces of the host cells conditions for the directed chemical and metabolic interaction formed IS of fungi and plant cells. Structurally functional interaction between them begins at cell walls contacts of a fungus and a plant. It is carried out by means of phosphatases and chitinases, loosening of a plant cell wall and therefore there is a possibility for a fungus to penetrate in it or to unstick off, and also by means of ions Н +, Са2+, PO43+ and cytosis, actively functioning at participation cellular endomembrane system playing the important role in biogenesis of a plasmatic membrane (PМ) of fungi and plants. High phosphatase activity in apoplast and cytoplasm of mesophyll cereal leaves is found out around a site of contact to intercellular hyphae (IH) of rust fungi as display of the general increase of catabolic and secretion activity. We assume, that taxis of plant cell nuclei and its involving in structurally functional interaction with fungal pathogen are mediated by the chemical signals arising in cytoplasm at increasing of phosphatase activity on a plant cells surface, for example through processes phosphorilation / dephosphorilation of membrano-structural and cytoplasmatic proteins. As a result of a mutual induction of secretion activity in a site of intercellular fungus/plant adhesion the exocytosis of products from endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) of plant cell and a small fungal vesicles can be interfaced to their adsorption on PМ and by means endocytosis to come in plant protoplasm; and on the contrary, as result of exocytosis of substances, produced in plants ER and dictiosomes Golgi (DG), - with endocytosis take up by haustorial protoplasm. By means exocytosis from plant and fungal cells, as a rule, high-molecular substances - the enzymes, some components of cellular walls (chitin, pectinaceous substances, hemicelluloses and xyloglucans), and also the relativelly low-molecular toxins isolated in membrane packing from direct interaction with cytoplasm of a secreting cells emanate. However at a plant cells they have mainly protective value, and at a pathogenic fungus they play a role of factors of pathogenicity. However at a plant cells they have mainly protective value, and at a pathogenic fungus they play a role of factors of pathogenicity. Therefore processes exo- and endocytosis get basic value in interaction between protoplasm of a plant and a pathogenic fungus after penetration thin infectious outgrow and IW of the exciter through a wall of a plant cell, i.e. at an establishment of character of the future parasitism (biotrophic or necrotrophic) and compatibility degrees between a plant and pathogenic fungus. Small bent plasmolisis and sinuosity profiles of PM, callose-containing papilles and cytoplasmatic lysosomes localization in places of intercellular contact of plants with pathogen say that in these sites there is an infringement of barrier properties of PМ and increase of its permeability for water, ions and water-solute organic monomers. By means of active cytosis occur updating sites of host cell PМ changed with pathogen and restoration of its normal barrier properties, and also education of additional stratifications on a wall and escape of hydrolases, protecting plant protoplasm from action of a fungus and saving viability of a cells. However chitinase operates on sensitive hyphal tips, promoting formation IS, including HMC. The attachment of pathogens to a surface of plant cells reflects occurrence in this site structural complementarity between cooperating organisms. We determined that IW is the general IS for all considered by us phytopathosystems from which initial induced biotrophic relations then can or go on or suppressed in a different ways. If in a zone of intercellular contact with appressoria of powdery mildew mushrooms or HMC rust fungi reparation of PМ goes successfully, the haustoria go in direct structural-chemical interaction with invaginsted PМ of the host cell. Thus a phosphstases of haustorial wall and other hydrolases adjoin to components of extrahaustorial membranes (EHM) and then hydrolysis products (lipids and phosphates) together with not split molecules are soaked up with haustoria and arrive in its vacuoles for definitive digestion. Active circulation of lysosomes on a surface and from a surface into haustorial body is caused by absence at the last during long time dense wall and preservation its immature functional active status. Soaking up evagination of EHМ, the biotrophic fungus nevertheless does not destroy it and a vacuolar membrane, and the defeated cell remains live. Therefore maintenance of structural integrity EHM as parts PМ and its regeneration by exocytose is direct from ER underlie an obligate parasitism of fungi. Unlike of powdery mildew and rust fungi haustoria the cover around IW of Pt which is formed in epidermal cells of resistant plants and is an indicator beginning biotrophic relations, is formed not as EHM and as continuation papilla under аppressorium, is deep invaginated in cytoplasm. In susceptible barley Pt lysosomal activity and processes of cytosis quickly suppresses, leads to development papillar adjournment around IW, that promotes to necrotrophic parasitism. Data influence pathogen on a plant cell consists in its destruction from the inside, with vacuole, after adjournment electron-dense secretore fungal products on tonoplast where they get, possibly, by endocytosis through инвагинации PМ or through a microtime in PМ after damage of its structural chanal proteins with extracellular proteases. In plant cytoplasm the toxic metabolites of fungus operate on DG and they suppress exocytosis, and then, collecting in vacuolar membrane, call infringement of its integrity and autolysis of cytoplasms. Formed products of degradation are soaked up the IG, braiding a leaf mesophyll cells by network. Thus, IW at biotrophic (powdery mildew and rust) fungi becomes haustorium, and at necrotrophic (the exciter of net spot blotch helminthosporiosis) gives rise to the infectious floccuses giving off toxins, enzymes and other connections. They extend diffuse on the next plant cells, calling extensive necrosis. On the contrary, at biotrophic pathogenicity factors are always connected with a haustorial surface, operate only on the defeated cell and save it in a functioning status. Comparison morphogenetic changes in ontogenesis the mushrooms differing in the way of influence on a plant, has allowed to reveal that IS with which begins divergention ways of parasitism investigated pathogen. The analysis of the received data gives the chance to conclude, that a basis of an associativity of coexistence of a fungi and a plant in phytopathosystem is biotrophic type of relations between them. The essence of these relations consists in maintenance by both organisms of functional activity thanks to which there is their integration into rather equilibrium system. The leading part in development of the given mutual relations belongs to processes exo- and endocytosis. Change or the llular systems, lysosomes, vacuole and nuclei, since intercellular contact and finishing formation of parasitic commutermination of an associativity of these processes in the cooperating organisms, caused by participation endomembrane cenications, defines compatibility level, and also necrotrophic or biotrophic type of parasitism in phytopathosystem.

41. Серова З.Я., Карпук В.В., Гесь Д.К. Функции растительных ядер в формировании межвидовых отношений при взаимодействии авто- и гетеротрофных организмов. //Клеточные ядра растений: экспрессия и реконструкция. Сборник научных трудов 1 Регион. научн. конф., г. Минск, 28-29 мая 2001 г. /Редколл.: В.Н. Решетников и др.; научные рецензенты: В.М. Юрин, З.Я. Серова. – Барановичи: Барановичская укрупн. типография, 2001. С. 118-128. [Serova Z.J., Karpuk V.V., Ges D.K. Functions of plant buclei in formation of interspecific relations at interaction auto- and heterotrophic organisms.//Cellular nuclei of plants: an expression and reconstruction. Collected Scientific Articles of I Regional Сonference, Minsk, on May, 28-29th, 2001. /Edit. board: V.N. Reshetnikov, etc.; Scientific reviewers: V.M. Jurin, Z.J. Serova.- Baranovichi: Baranovichi Extended Type, 2001.P.118-128.]. Summary : There are given to account the results of researches showing that infection of rye plants by causal agents of a leaf and stem rust, specialization of them, occurrence of biotrophic feeding and the subsequent creating of dynamically equilibrium and comparative sleady (homeostalic) conditions of phylopathosystem is supervised with nuclear genome of host plant, which is triggered already in ectophytic stages of structural interaction with pathogen. The role of cell nuclei in interactions of pathogenic fungus and the host plant is considered in connection with formation of interspecific relations in auto- and heterotrophic organisms at their integration in biocenosis.

42. Карпук В.В., Серова З.Я., Плотникова Ю.М. Электронномикроскопическое изучение моногенной и полигенной устойчивости растений к возбудителю стеблевой ржавчины ржи. // Международный научный симпозиум “Молекулярные механизмы генетических процессов и биотехнология” Москва,18–21 окт. 2001 г. – Минск, 22–24 окт. 2001 г. – М.: Полиграф и ресурсы, 2001. С. 72–74. [Karpuk V.V., Serova Z.J., Plotnikova J.M. Electron-microscopic studying of monogene and polygene resistance of plants to the exciter of a stem rust of a rye.//The International scientific symposium “Molecular mechanisms of genetic processes and biotechnology” Moscow, 18-21 Oct. 2001, Minsk, 22-24 Oct. 2001. - М: Polygraph and resources, 2001. P. 72-74.]. Summary : Results of research have shown, that ultrastructural changes at rase-sort-specific and species-specific (non-host's) resistance in mepophyll cells of plants in relation to P. graminis f.sp. secalis are similar. They occur at the same stage of structural interaction – in time of attachment intercellular hyphal tips to mesophyll cell walls, formation of haustorial mother cells and the beginning development of haustoria. The obtained data allow to assume, that between monogene and polygene resistance of plants to exciter of a stem rust rye there is no basic difference since in both cases pathogen calls in mesophyll cells the same changes and the reactions conducting to fast dying off cells of a plant and a fungus. If pathogen does not induce or inhibit these reactions necrotic changes in cells are removed on later stages of structural interaction, and in mesophyll cells other protective reactions directed on maintenance of structural integrity and viability of these cells are activated, however, allowing pathogen to use these functional mechanisms for realisation of biotroph parasitism.

43. Карпук В.В.Новый подход для изучения видоспецифичности взаимодействия авто- и гетеротрофных организмов. // Регуляция роста, развития и продуктивности растений. (Материалы II Международной научной конференции, г. Минск, 5-8 декабря 2001 г.): Редакционная коллегия: Н.А. Ламан (председатель), и др.; Научные рецезенты: С.И. Гриб, В.А. Хрипач. – Минск, 2001. С. 94-95. [Karpuk V.V. New approach for research species-specific interactions of auto-and heterotrophic organisms. //Regulation of growth, development and efficiency of plants. (Materials of II International scientific conference, Minsk, on December, 5-8th, 2001): Editorial board: N.А. Laman (chairman), etc.; Scientific reviewers: S.I. Grib, V.A. Hripach, – Minsk, 2001. P. 94-95.]. Summary : Now for selection of resistant plants often use callus cultures received from small slices of vegetative tissues on nutritional media in which add toxins, excreted with phytopathogenic mushrooms. However not all plants grown up from callus cultures save resistance to defeat by pathogen. It can speak that at infection of plants in vivo pathogen allocates not only toxins, but also extracellular enzymes, hormones and other substances also influencing on occurrence of symptoms and weight of disease. Besides, decrease resistance of plant-regenerants to toxin in comparison with initial callus can be caused change of some cytophysiological characteristics of plant cells in result of differentiation of tissues. These circumstances influence level of parasitic specialisation necrotroph and hemibiotroph pathogens n relation to species, sorts and tissues of host plants. But parasitic attachment to certain kinds, grades and tissues of host plant in more measure it is characteristic for biotroph pathogens at which ability to development extracellular enzymes and toxins is strongly reduced. Interaction of biotrophs to cells and tissues of plants occurs by means of intercellular contact in which result components of cellular walls and plasmatic membranes in an adhesion site change the properties and signal in cytoplasm and to nuclei about induction of reactions directed on maintenance of their cellular viability and mutual adaptation of both organisms. Such mutual relations are observed at infection of plants with uredospores of rust exciters, in particular, at penetration of infectious structures of fungus into leaf tissues and cells of cereals. Coming into contact to intercellular hyphae of pathogen cells of plant mesophyll show or ability to an establishment of the coupling interfaced parasitic relations with developing haustoria of fungus, or absence of such ability which is shown as fast necrose in defeted cells. However, despite high and genetically fixed adaptation of fungi to certain species and tissues of plants - for example, germ tubes Puccinia graminis to interacti with leaf epidermis, the role of prehaustorial development stages rust fungi in an induction of specific and tissues specificity still is not clear. The researches done by M. Heath /1981,1991/, have shown, that rust fungi develop compatible relations with tissues of a susceptible sort of host plants only after overcoming of its basic (species-specific) resistance which is passed plants at interspecific crossings and in steady grades is imposed on the raso-sorto-specific resistance defined on reaction of supersensitivity as a result of interaction complement of products of a gene avirulence of pathogen and a gene of resistance of a plant-host. It complicates distinction species- and sorts-specific resistance in cells and tissues as a part of the whole leaf and decoding of the mechanisms causing them which have arisen during joint evolution of plants and mushrooms. In connection with the aforesaid, we believe that use of artificial associations, creating by isolatedepidermal, mesophyll tissues, and also dedifferentiated callus cells with developing germ tubes spores of biotroph, necrotroph and mycorhizal mushrooms, can be useful to studying of structurally functional mechanisms of their transition from trophic independent existence accordingly to bio-or necrotroph type of parasitism and mutualism, and also species-specificity in formed them associations.

44. Сенчило В.И., Гореньков В.Ф., Бондаренко А.И., Костюченко О.И., Царик Г.Н., Карпук В.В. Поиск новых гомеопатических лекарственных средств на основе флоры республики Беларусь. //Медико-социальная экология личности: состояние и перспективы: Материалы международн. конф., Минск, 4-5 апреля 2003 г. /Ответственный редактор Е.Н. Смирнова. - Мн.: Издательский центр БГУ, 2004. С. 216. [Senchilo V.I, Gorenkov V.F, Bondarenko A.I., Kostjuchenko O.I, Tsarik G.N, Karpuk V.V. Searc of new homoeopathic medical products on the basis of republic Belarus flora. // Medic-social ecology of the person: a status and prospects: Materials II International. Conf., Minsk, on April 4-5, 2003. / The editor-in-chief E.N. Smirnova. - Minsk.: Publishing centre BSU, 2004. P. 216.].

45. Сенчило В.И., Гореньков В.Ф., Бондаренко А.И., Костюченко О.И., Царик Г.Н., Карпук В.В. Разработка и стандартизация конкурентоспособных гомеопатических лекарственных средств на основе флоры Беларуси. //Медико-социальная экология личности: состояние и перспективы: Материалы международн. конф., Минск, 4-5 апреля 2003 г. / Ответственный редактор Е.Н. Смирнова. - Мн.: Издательский центр БГУ, 2004. С. 217-218. [Senchilo V.I, Gorenkov V.F, Bondarenko A.I., Kostjuchenko O.I, Tsarik G.N, Karpuk V.V. Working out and standardization of competitive homoeopathic medical products on the basis of flora of Belarus. // Medic-social ecology of the person: a status and prospects: Materials II International. Conf., Minsk, on April 4-5, 2003. / The editor-in-chief E.N. Smirnova. - Minsk.: Publishing centre BSU, 2004. P. 217-218.

46. Карпук В.В., Корытько Л.А., Мельникова Е.В., Гордей И.А., Белью Н.Б. Устойчивость новых гибридных форм ржи и пшеницы к Puccinia graminis f.sp. secalis и особенности эктофитной фазы патогенеза. // Регуляция роста, развития и продуктивности растений. (материалы Ш Международной научной конференции, г. Минск, 8-10 октября 2003 г.). – Минск, 2003. /Редакционная коллегия: Н.А.Ламан (предс.) и др.; научные рецензенты: С.И.Гриб, В.А.Хрипач. - Мн.: Право и экономика, 2003. С. 209-211. [Karpuk V.V., Koryt'ko L.A., Melnikova E.V., Gordej I.A., Bel'ko N.B. Resistance of new rye and wheat hybrid forms to Puccinia graminis f.sp. secalis and ectophytic phases pathogenesis features.//Regulation of growth, development and efficiency of plants. (Materials III of the International scientific conference, Minsk, on October, 8-10th, 2003). – Minsk, 2003. /Editorial board: N.A.Laman (предс.), etc.; scientific reviewers: S.I. Grib, V.A. Hripach. - Мinsk: The Right and Economy, 2003.P. 209-211.]. Summary : Researches of tomatoes resistance to biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum, and also plants to some bacteria with application of molecular-genetic methods has resulted in the end of 20 centuries to considerable progress in understanding of the reasons of this phenomenon. The comparative analysis of structure of genes of race-sorts-specific phytostability with other genes at plants and animals has found out surprising similarity of these genes to the genes defining structurally functional polarization of cells of zygotes and multicellular germs of insects and other animals. It has been established, that by the basic function of genes of resistance of plant sorts, complemented to corresponding genes avirulence of pathogen races, development in infected cells of the host immediate necrosis is. Assume, that the genes causing hyper-susceptible necrosis of cells at interaction with pathogens, evolution are connected with the genes responsible for formation in a vegetative organism of conducting tissues and differentiation of xylem cells. At the same time, in studying of physiological bases of phytoimmunity there are many problems. According to hypothesis М. Heath (1997) which has received wide recognition, complemented genes causing specificity of relations in a concrete combination race – sort, can carry out corresponding functions only after achievement of some level of basic compatibility in the course of intercellular contact at the previous stage of structural interaction. However the nature inductors, calling this basic (species-specific, or interspecific) incompatibility, forms of its display, structurally functional mechanisms of recognition of "alien", and also their comparison to the similar factors defining race-sorts-specific resistance, are insufficiently investigated. In this connection, we undertake studying immunological reaction and structural displays of species-specific resistance of sorts of a rye and wheat – (susceptible to corresponding specialised form of pathogen- rye or wheaten) and interspecific hybrids of these plants – secalotriticum and triticale (two lines from each hybrid form) to the exciter of a stem rust of cereals. At the first stage of job studied rye interaction, secalotriticum, triticale and wheat with the rye form of pathohen, fungus Puccinia graminis f.sp. secalis; in particular, we defined type immunological reactions and features of course ectophytic phases of infectious process. The carried out studying of reaction of samples of a rye, secalotriticum, triticale and wheat on infection uredospores the exciter of a stem rust of a rye has revealed high stability of all hybrid forms, and also a relative susceptibility (type of reaction development of a fungus are found out in hybrids in ectophytic period, limiting its penetration into leaf and the subsequent 3 on a 5-ball scale) grades of the rye used as one of initial forms at deducing of these hybrids. Characteristic infringements of tages of pathogenesis.

47. Карпук В.В., Мельникова Е.В., Корытько Л.А., Гордей И.А., Белько Н.Б. Патогенез Puccinia graminis f.sp. secalis и P. graminis f.sp. tritici на гибридных формах пшеницы и ржи: эктофитная стадия. //Актуальные проблемы фито- и микобиоты: Сб. статей Междунар. научно-практич. конф., 25–27 окт. 2004., Минск. – Мн.: ИЦ БГУ, 2004. С. 158–160. [Karpuk V.V., Melnikova E.V., Koryt'ko L.A., Gordej I.A., Bel'co N.B. Ectophytic stage of Puccinia graminis f.sp. secalis and P. graminis f.sp. tritici pathogenesis on hybrid forms of wheat and a rye. // Actual problems of phyto-and mycobiota: Collection articles of international scientifically-practical confererence, Oct. on 25–27, 2004, Minsk. – Minsk: BSU, 2004. P. 158–160.]. Summary : The basic iinto a folium and the subsequent pathogenesis on Secalotriticum, Triticale and non-host plants (wheat, rye) used as one of ininfringements of the Puccinia graminis f.sp. secalis and P. graminis f.sp. tritici ectophytic development limited penetration the fungi tial forms at creating of these hybrids are found out.

48. Карпук В.В. Грибы – источники фармакологически активных веществ. // Медико-социальная экология личности: состояние и перспективы: Материалы II международн. конф., Минск,2–3 апреля 2004 г. /Ответственный редактор В.А. Прокашева. - Мн.: Издательский центр БГУ, 2004. С.175–178. [Karpuk V.V. Mushrooms – sources of pharmacological active substances. //Medic-social ecology of the person: a status and prospects: Materials II International. Conf., Minsk, on April 2-3, 2004. / The editor-in-chief V.A. Prokasheva. – Minsk.: Publishing centre BSU, 2004. P. 175–178.]. Summary : Mushrooms are the big group of the live organisms, which have stood apart from microorganisms, seaweed, plants and animals and making a separate kingdom. Now the attention is even more often drawn to mushrooms for the purpose of studying and use of their natural potential as power supplies and biologically active substances. In this connection, the main purpose of the present message is to analyse data available in the literature on features of structure, a chemical compound, a metabolism of mushroom organisms, their specific variety and to note those from them which, according to the author, are perspective for practical use as new pharmacological means or food bioactive supplements. In the review a number of the arguments is allowed concluding that mushrooms can and should become the important sources of new medical products and also the biological food products promoting life expectancy and activity of the person.

49. Гореньков В.Ф., Сенчило В.И., Карпук В.В., Телюк Н.А. Преподавание ботаники, физиологии растений и фармакогнозии студентам, обучающимся по специальности «Химия (Фармацевтическая деятельность)». //Актуальные проблемы изучения фито- и микобиоты. Сб. статей Междунар. научно-практич. конф. Минск, 25–27 окт. 2004 г. – Мн.: издательский центр БГУ, 2004. С. 288–290.[// Actual problems of phyto-and mycobiota: Collection articles of international scientifically-practical confererence, Oct. on 25–27, 2004, Minsk. – Minsk: BSU, 2004. P. 288–290.

50. Карпук В.В. Роль лизосомально-вакуолярных систем клеток ржавчинного гриба и растения в фитопатогенезе. // Ботаника: исследования. Вып. 33. / Редакционная коллегия: Н.А. Ламан, В.И. Парфенов, А.П. Волынец и др.; научный рецензент: Н.А. Ламан. – Мн.: Право и экономика. 2005. С. 276-286. [Karpuk V.V. Role of lysosomal and vacuolar cellular systems of rust fungi and plant in phytopathogenesis. // Botany: researches. Issue 33./ Editorial Board: N.A. Laman, V.I. Parfenov, A.P. Volynets, etc.; scientific reviewer: N.A. Laman. – Мinsk: The Right and Economy, 2005. P. 276-286.]. Summary : The light- and electron-histochemical studies on the host plant seedlings of sensitive and resistant cultivars ("Har'kovskaya 60" and the semi-wild rye Derzhavina accordingly) infected with Puccinia graminis f.sp. secalis and P. dispersa and on the infectious structures of these rust fungi for the purpose to clarify the roles of their lysosomal and vacuolar cellular systems in phytopathogenesis have been conducted. The structural and functional changes of these cellular systems in fungi while turning from ectophytic to endophytic (parasitic) stage of onthogenesis were determined and their participation in interaction with similar systems of the host plant cells was proved. It was stated that interaction of se creted lysosomal phosphatases in sites of intercellular fungus-plant contact provides specificity of interrelations of them in phytopathosystem and this interaction influences on functions of their nuclei. It is concluded that the activation of lysosomal systems in plant cells with rust pathogen serves an important cytophysiological mechanism of plant defence against infection but the suppression of lysosomal activity under inducing the host plant cells is a necessary condition for the development of biotrophic parasitic relations.

51. Серова З.Я., Карпук В.В., Гесь Д.К. Характер взаимоотношений авто- и гетеротрофных организмов при формировании фитопатосистем. //Ботаника: исследования. Вып. 33. / Редакционная коллегия: Н.А. Ламан, В.И. Парфенов, А.П. Волынец и др.; научный рецензент: Н.А. Ламан. – Мн.: Право и экономика, 2005. С. 287-305. [Z.Y. Serova, V.V. Karpuk, D.K. Ges. Character of mutual relations auto-and heterotrophic organisms at formation of phytopathosystems and mechanisms of its regulation // Botany: researches. Issue 33./ Editorial Board: N.A. Laman, V.I. Parfenov, A.P. Volynets, etc.; scientific reviewer: N.A. Laman. – Мinsk: The Right and Economy, 2005. P. 287-305.]. Summary : The phenomenon of compatibility of cells at establishment of interrelationship between plant and fungus has been discussed. The mechanism for regulating the compatibility of paint and fungus cells include: recognition of contacting surfaces by means of establishing complimentary spatial relations initiating fungus differentiation of infections structures, stimulation of nucleus activity of the host cell and protein synthesis reacting with pathogen protein on antigen - antigen principle; fermentative switching of metabolic shunts for extending or reducing the possibilities for the synthesis of compounds regulating fungus vital activity; inter-species integration of endomembrane system with corresponding structural component changes of the latter; modification of endo-and-exocytose inducing biotrophic pathogene feeding; switching of the elements of intracellular signalling transmitting external information and projecting adaptation transformations in phytopathosystem rye - pathogene of leaf or stem rust.

52. Телюк Н.А., Карпук В.В. Ткани высших растений: Учебное пособие для студентов химического факультета специальности 1-31 05 01-03 "Химия (фармацевтическая деятельность)" по курсу "Основы ботаники". – Мн.: Издат. центр БГУ, 2005. – 38 с. [Teljuk N.A., Karpuk V.V. Tissues of higher plants: the Manual for students of chemical faculty on speciality 1-31 05 01-03 "Chemistry (pharmaceutical activity)" at the course "The Bases of Botany". - Мinsk.: Publishing Centre of BSU, 2005. - 38 pp.]. Summary : In the textbook the data necessary for students for job with microscopic technics, and also distinctive characteristics of plant tissues (meristemal, integumentary, mechanical, etc.) which will be useful to them at diagnostic researches of medicinal vegetative raw materials are resulted. For students of I course of chemical faculty on a speciality «Chemistry (pharmaceutical activity)».

53. Сенчило В.И., Костюченко О.И., Карпук В.В. Фармакогнозия: Практикум для студентов химического факультета специальности 1-31 05 01 03 "Химия (Фармацевтическая деятельность)". Редактор А.П. Чернякова; рецензенты: В.Д. Поликсенова, Н.А. Телюк.– Мн.: Издательский центр БГУ, 2005. – 83 с. [Senchilo V.I, Kostjuchenko O.I., Karpuk V.V. Pharmacognozia: the Practical work for students of chemical faculty on speciality 1-31 05 01 03 "Chemistry (Pharmaceutical activity)". /Edit. by A.P. Chernjakova; critic notices: V.D. Poliksenova, N.A. Teljuk. - Мinsk.: Publishing centre of BSU, 2005. – 83 pp.]. Summary : Laboratory jobs on phytochemical methods of definition of the basic operating substances of medicinal plant raw materials, establishment of its authenticity, high quality and conformity to requirements of standard documents are included on in a practical work. For students of chemical faculty BSU.

54. В.В. Карпук, Н.А. Телюк, Е. Зубей. Возможность использования вирусных патогенов для образования растениями фармакологически активных веществ. // Улучшение, сохранение и реабилитация здоровья в контексте международного сотрудничества. Материалы международной научно-практической конферениии (Брест, 21-23 октября 2005 года) /Ред. колл.: Герасевич А.Н. [и др.]; науч. рецензенты: А. А. Горбацкий, М.С. Омельянчик, А.И. Шпаков, В.Н Артемьев. – Брест: Академия, 2005: С. 76-78. [V.V. Karpuk, N.A.Teljuk, E.Zubej. Possibility of use virus pathogens for production by plants pharmacological active substances.//Improvement, preservation and health rehabilitation in a context of the international cooperation. Materials international scientifically-practical conference. (Brest, on October 21-23st, 2005)/Edit. board.: Gerasevich A.N. [etc.]; Sci. reviewers: A.A.Gorbatsky, M.S.Omeljanchik, A.I.Shpakov, V.N. Artemyev. – Brest: Academy, 2005: P. 76-78.]. Summary : The authors of the article suppose the use of infection by phyto-pathogenic viruses for stimulation production by medical plants pharmacological active substances and for development of system ecological plant protection.

55. Карпук В.В.Роль грибных компонентов пыли в индукции легочных заболеваний человека. // Медико-социальная экология личности: состояние и перспективы (Материалы III международной конференции, 1-2 апреля 2005 г., Минск, Часть 2.). / Редакционная коллегия: В.А. Прокашева (отв. ред.), П.В. Лопатин, С.Н. Черенкевич и др. – Минск, 2005. С. 105-109. [Karpuk V.V. The role of mushroom components of the dust in the induction of pulmonary diseases of the person.//Mediko-social ecology of the person: a status and prospects (Materials of III International Conference, on April 1-2st, 2005, Minsk, Part 2.). / Editorial board: V.A. Prokasheva (chairman), P.V. Lopatin, S.N. Cherenkevich, etc. – Minsk, 2005. P. 105-109.]. Summary : It is known, that inductors of many infectious, pulmonary, skin, allergic and asthmatic diseases are flying in air or already settled lumps of a dust. The basic sources of creation of a dust in Byelorussia and the centres of its distribution are now some technologies widely used at the enterprises of agriculture. Similar technologies are applied also in the USA, Canada, the European Union countries, where data about maintenance communication in air of biocomponents of a dust with the advent of certain symptoms of diseases of people - pulmonary illness of farmers (FLD – Farmer's Lung Disease) in the form of an atypical supersensitive pneumonia (HP – Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis) or an organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS – Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome) have been obtained. The diseases connected with inhalation of a dust, containing microorganisms, have been noted at 82 % from 67 students who have accepted in 1990 г participation in preparation of hay and threshing of grain, and at increase in terms of a finding of people in the conditions of an agrotechnical dust content with 4 ч till 7 days frequency of the given diseases increased in 30 times. The major an etiology feature of these diseases is high concentration of cells and metabolites of mushrooms or bacteria in an inhaled dust. In the dust lumps calling ODTS and HP, usually reveal presence of mushroom cells – spores, fragments of mycelia, and also metabolites - polymers of cellular walls, the rests of cellular membranes, enzymatic proteins, lipids, steroids, toxins, various physiologically active substances, as a rule, showing the action in low and very low concentration (1•10 - 2-1•10 - 8 Μ). In connection with that that diseases of lungs induced by a dust, as a rule, have the complex nature, a role of mushroom components in initiation and development of these of disease demands detailed studying. With a view of finding-out of presence of mushrooms in a dust, produced in the course of agricultural jobs Karpuk V.V. and Kulikova T.I., employers of laboratory of physiology of sick plant of the Institute of Experimental Botany of Byelarussian Natl. Acad. Sci., on fields in vicinities of Minsk at July 1987, 1988 and 1990 have been collected samples of defeated leaves of a rye, wheat, an oats and barley on whom mushrooms spores of Alternaria, Cochliobolus, Drechslera, Fusarium, Septoria, Trichoderma, Erysiphe, Puccinia, Tilletia, Ustilago have been defined by us in disputes subsequently. Spores of the same mushrooms have been found by us also in samples of a dust on the combines making harvesting of named cultures. Besides, in dust samples of combines often there were mushrooms spores of Aspergillus, Penicillium germinated and developed colonies in vitro; a patrimonial accessory at least eight samples of mushroom spores to establish it was not possible.

56. Карпук В.В.Внеклеточные протеазы, РНКазы и ДНКазы гриба Pyrenophora teres Drechs. и возможность их фармацевтического применения. // Медико-социальная экология личности: состояние и перспективы (Материалы IV международной конференции, 7-8 апреля 2006 г., Минск, Часть 2.). / Редакционная коллегия: В.А. Прокашева (отв. ред.), П.В. Лопатин, В. Ф. Гореньков, В. И. Прокопишин и др. – Минск, 2005. С. 106-107. [V.V. Karpuk. Extracellular proteases, RNAses and DNAses of mushroom Pyrenophora teres Drechs. and possibility of their pharmaceutical application. // Mediko-social ecology of the person: a status and prospects (Materials of IV International Conference, on April 7-8, 2006, Minsk, Part 2.). / Editorial board: V.A. Prokasheva (ed.-in-chief), P.V. Lopatin, V.F. Gorenkov, V.I. Prokopishin, etc. – Minsk, 2005. P. 106-107.]. Summary : Cultural medium of phytopathogenic mushroom P. teres represents a source of highly active proteases, RNAses and DNAses, which totally (without division) can be used for struggle with virus pathogens: for example, in the form of tampons, gauze bandages for external processing herpetic ulcers, wounds, for protection breath organs of people from infection with virus particles, for prevention of clots formation at a hemorrhage, and also for reception of corresponding pharmaceutical preparations.

57. Карпук В.В., Корытько Л.А., Мельникова Е.В., Гордей И.А., Белько Н.С. Устойчивость новых гибридных форм ржи и пшеницы к Puccinia graminis Pers. f.sp. secalis и f.sp. tritici: особенности эндофитной фазы патогенеза. //Регуляция роста, развития и продуктивности растений (Материалы V Международной научной конференции, г. Минск, 28-30 ноября 2007). / Редакционная коллегия: Алексейчук Г.Н., Прохоров В.Н., Родионов П.А., Сосновская Т.Ф.; науч. рецензент: академик, профессор Ламан Н.А. - Минск: Право и экономика, 2007. С. 95. [Karpuk V.V., Koryt'ko L.A., Melnikova E.V., Gordej I.A., Bel'ko N.B. Resistance of new rye and wheat hybrid forms to Puccinia graminis Pers. f.sp. secalis and f.sp. tritici: ectophytic phases pathogenesis features.//Regulation of growth, development and efficiency of plants. (Materials of the V International scientific conference, Minsk, on October, 8-10th, 2003). – Minsk, 2003. /Editorial board: Aleksejchuk G.N., Prokhorov V.N., Rodionov P.A., Sosnovskaja T.F.; scientific reviewer: N.A. Laman. – Мinsk: The Right and Economy, 2003. P. 95.]. Summary : Data of researches show an activity of peroxidase in healthy germlings differing in 1,5-4 times, and these levels change a little in ontogenesis of germlings and in at infection with a stem rust. Accurate dependence between peroxidase activity and degree of resistance/susceptibility of plants to rust exciters it is not revealed. As hypersensitivity is induced by a certain combination of nuclear genes, cytoplasm of wheat or a rye does not increase frequency of these genes and their occurrence, but modifying impact on functioning complementar genes makes. Therefore mutual relations plants triticale and secalotriticum with exciters of a stem rust of a rye and wheat are under construction on the protective reactions constraining, instead of interrupting the interfaced mechanisms biotrophic parasitism.

58. Сенчило В.И., Карпук В.В., Гореньков В.Ф. Антиоксидантная активность водных экстрактов из лекарственных растений, произрастающих в окрестностях г. Минска. // Медико-социальная экология личности: состояние и перспективы (Материалы V международной конференции, 6-7 апреля 2007 г., Минск, Часть 2.). / Редакционная коллегия: В.А. Прокашева (отв. ред.), и др. – Минск, 2005. С. 319-323. [Senchilo V.I., Karpuk V.V., Gorenkov V.F. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from the medical plants growing in vicinities of Minsk.// Mediko-social ecology of the person: a status and prospects (Materials of V International Conference, on April 7-8, 2006, Minsk, Part 2.)./ Editorial board: V.A. Prokasheva (ed.-in-chief), etc. – Minsk, 2007. P. 319-323.]. Summary : From 50 investigated kinds of medical plant raw materials it is noted 12 kinds showed in water extracts the highest levels of antioxydants which it is possible to recommend also for wide application, for example, in the form of phytoadditives in daily taken drinks and teas as means of treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases. The present data on activity of antioxydant in water extracts it is planned to add with results of researches of activity of antioxidants in water-etanol extracts for these kinds of medicinal vegetative raw materials.

59. Карпук В.В., Волынец А.П. Фармакогностическая оценка влияния ржавчинной инфекции на фенольный комплекс ржи. // Медико-социальная экология личности: состояние и перспективы (Материалы VI международной конференции, 4-5 апреля 2008 г., Минск. В двух частях. Часть 2.). / Редакционная коллегия: В.А. Прокашева (отв. ред.), и др. – Минск, 2005. С. 168-170. [Karpuk V.V., Volynets A.P. // Medic-social ecology of the person: a status and prospects (Materials of VI International Conference, on April 4-5, 2008, Minsk, Part 2.) / Editorial board: V.A. Prokasheva (ed.-in-chief), etc. – Minsk, 2008. P. 168-170.]. Summary :Certain features in change of a phenolic complex of the defeated plants of a rye are traced. The exciter of a brown leaf rust promotes the maximum accumulation phenolcarbonic acids and their aethers (level free phenolcarbonic acids makes 180 % during the latent period of disease, and aethers of phenolcarbonic acids reaches 215 % from the control during the first period pathogenesis), while the exciter of a stem rust - to accumulation phlavonoid glycosides (their level increases in the defeated leaves of a rye to 135 % during the incubatory period and to 160 % during the first period of desease). In a rye sort (Kharkov 60) at defeat by a stem rust level of phlavonoid glycosides reaches 500 % (!) from the control. More intensive defeat of leaves of a rye by a rust leads fast and strong, but to less long accumulation of phenolic connections intissues. Dioxyphenols and them methyl derivatives can carry to rust-sensitive phenolic components of a rye also. The central place in biosynthesis of free phenolic connections, phenolic conjugates and polymeric phenols occupy oxicinnamic acids, their enzymatic oxidation gives highly active phenolic radicals andquinones, and polymerisation of coumaril, coniferil and sinapic alcohols leads to production of lignin. Among the substances formed in a metabolic phenolic pool induced by a rust of a rye, can be also coumarins, lignans, phlavonoids, tannins - all of them are pharmacological active and have various therapeutic application.

60. Карпук В.В. Научно-методологические возможности применения культуры ткани растений для ксенофитофизиологии. // Ксенобиотики и живые системы: Материалы III международной научной конференции (к 80-летию кафедры физиологии и биохимии растений), 22-24 октября 2008 г., Минск./ Редакционная коллегия: В. М. Юрин (отв. редактор), А. И. Соколик, И.И. Смолич, Е.В. Спиридович, О.Г. Яковец. – Минск: Издательский центр БГУ 2008. С. 54-58. [Karpuk V.V. Scientific-methodological possibilities of application of tissue culture of plants for xenophytophysiology.// Xenobiotics and live systems: Materials of III international scientific conference (to the 80 anniversary of chair of physiology and biochemistry of plants), on October, 22-24nd, 2008, Minsk./ Edit. board: V.M. Yurin (editor in chief), A.I. Sokolik, I.I. Smolich, Е.V. Spiridovich, O.G. Jakovets.– Minsk: BSU Publishing centre, 2008. P. 54-58.]. Summary : "Culture of tissues of plants" it is accepted to understand cultivation as the term in vitro (in sterile artificial conditions) the isolated cells, tissues, bodies and their parts. The method of culture of tissues has arisen as the experimental biological model, allowing to study physiological, biochemical and other processes at level of the independent cells released from regulating influence of the whole vegetative organism. Thanks to basic researches F. White (USA), R. Gotre (France), R.G. Butenko (Russia) and to their followers in many laboratories of the world, became possible long cultivation of not differentiated vegetative cellular weights –calluses, then the method of cultivation of vegetative cells in suspension culture and receptions of a biomass from individual cells that has allowed to allocate homogeneous in the genetic and physiological relation a material has been developed. Originally developed as purely theoretical direction the method of culture of tissues, since the middle of 60th years of the XX-th century, enters into an arsenal of the special research-and-production activity, known as the biotechnology. The technologies based on a method of culture of tissues, help to create new sorts of agricultural plants and to receive by industrial phytoproducts, finding pharmacological application. Ability of some cultures to production of the connections which have been not found out in initial plants, has allowed to consider them as producers essentially other, nonconventional biologically active substances. Though methods of somatic hybridization and gene engineering for the present have not received industrial development, however is doubtless, that they bear huge possibilities and become widely claimed in the future: At creation of new herbs necessary to the person – producers pharmalogical valuable substances, and also sorts of a cotton and many other things the agricultural and wood plants representing sources of raw materials for industrial processing and use in various branches of a national economy.

61. Карпук В.В. Cтруктурно-функциональные механизмы патогенеза злаков при грибной инфекции. VI Купревичские чтения. Проблемы экспериментальной ботаники./ Отв. Редактор: Н.А. Ламан; рецензенты: Н.А. Картель, А.П. Волынец. – Минск: Тэхналогiя, 2007. С. 55-108. [Karouk V.V. Structural and functional mechanisms pathogenesis of cereals causing by fungal infection. //VI Kuprevich lecture. Problems of experimental botany. /Editor in chief N.A. Laman; critic notice: N.A. Kartel, A.P. Volynets. – Minsk: Technology, 2007. Pp. 55-108. Summary : The structural and physiological questions of mutual relation in developing phytopathosystems, formed by the causal agents of rye brown leaf rust, rye and wheat stem rust (Puccinia dispersa Erikss. et Henn., P. graminis Pers. f.sp. secalis Erikss. et Henn., P. graminis Pers. f.sp. tritici Erikss. et Henn.), rye powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis (D.C.) Speer f.sp. secalis Marchal.) and helminthosporosic net spot blotch of barley leaves (Pyrenophora teres Drechs., anamorpha Drechslera teres Ito.) with rye, wheat and barley host plants differing by a degree of resistance to this pathogenic fungi or being for them as nonhosts are considered. There are shown, that phytopathogenesis represents complex process of integration two organisms, and structural basis of it is defined with type of a parasitism, host species and tissue specialization, ecto- or endophytic mean of existence a fungus and answerback reaction of a plant. Necrotroph P. teres can not create long functioning structural-organized phytopathosystem, its originating is observed only on the most initial, biotrophic stage of an ontogenesis and coincided with development at defeated by him plant of resistance. On the contrary, at a lesion of plants by biotropfic fungus (rust or powdery mildew) the structural and functional coupling between cooperating cells is induced, and the nuclei and endomemrane systems of them participate in this action. Necrotroph P. teres overcomes natural protective barriers of a plant by means of abundantly secreted many-factors system, in which proteases, peroxidases and toxins, excreted with infectious vesicles and hyphes of fungus in apoplast of mesophyll carry out function the determinants of pathogenicity. At biotrophs, the composition of secreted extracellular enzymes have reduced in process of evolution defined perfection its parasitic properties, and the haustorium is carried out function a determinant of pathogenicity, in particular, its main lysosomal enzyme phospatase, and also ions Ca2+ provide conditions for maintenance integrity of extrahaustorial membrane in result direct contiguous to it tanks of endoplasmatic reticulum and simultaneously operating the mechanism of obligate parasitism. The researches of immunological and cytophysiological background function of phyto-pathogenesis promotes opening a mechanism obligate phytoparasitism in the course of joint evolution fungus and plants.

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